200905 - Chem 104A, UC, Berkeley Periodic Trends Generally,...

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1 Chem 104A, UC, Berkeley Periodic Trends Generally, atoms with same outer-orbital structure appear in the same Column. Chem 104A, UC, Berkeley Example: H2: d=0.74 Å - Æ r H =0.37 Å Estimating bond distance (covalent): R----C-H: d C-H = r C + r H =0.77 + 0.37 =1.14 Å Effective atomic radius (covalent radius) effective atomic radius =1/2(d AA in the molecule A 2 )
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2 Chem 104A, UC, Berkeley Trend 1. Atomic radii increase down a group (Z eff ~constant while n increases). Trend 2: Atomic radii decrease across a period (Z eff increase) Chem 104A, UC, Berkeley
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3 Chem 104A, UC, Berkeley Na K Rb 1 6 2 2 3 2 2 1 s p s s 2 . 2 2 85 . 0 8 11 = × = eff Z Z eff =2.2 4 3 3 2 2 1 6 2 6 2 2 s p s p s s 1 Chem 104A, UC, Berkeley Na Mg Al Si P S Cl [Ne] Z σ Z eff 1 3 s 2 3 s 1 2 3 3 p s 2 2 3 3 p s 3 2 3 3 p s 4 2 3 3 p s 5 2 3 3 p s 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 8.8 9.15 9.5 9.85 10.2 10.55 10.9 2.2 2.85 3.5 4.15 4.8 5.45 6.1 1 = Δ Z 35 . 0 = Δ σ 65 . 0 = Δ eff Z
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4 Chem 104A, UC, Berkeley Ionization energy: Energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom or ion.
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This note was uploaded on 09/28/2009 for the course CHEM 104a taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at University of California, Berkeley.

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200905 - Chem 104A, UC, Berkeley Periodic Trends Generally,...

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