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09.18 - Allows small molecules to pass Generates a common...

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Bernard Katz No stimulation No Ca++
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1 ) Quantal nature of neurotransmitter release 2 ) Ca++ dependent release of neurotransmitters why discrete quantities? how are neurotransmitters packaged? why is a second ion required? what is the link between Ca++ and vesicles? what is the link between Ca++ and vesicles?
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Pancreatic cells ( Insulin )
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Synapsin - vesicle loading SNAPs - priming/docking SNAREs - fusion
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1 2 3 4 “magic happens”
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Clostridum: Botulinum toxin paralysis Clostridum tetani: tetanospasmin tetanus Botox Injections
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Tetanus Leak channels Gated channels- voltage ligand (chemical) pressure (mechanical) stretch light (electromagnetic) temperature Ion Channels operate in many ways: Acetylcholine (+) Glutamate (+) GABA (-) Glycine (-) Dopamine Norepinephrine/epinephrine Serotonin Histamine Peptides/ATP Endocannabinoids Endorphins
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Gap Junctions Synapses Electrical Electrical Synapses: Gap Junctions Found in the heart and brain.
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Unformatted text preview: Allows small molecules to pass. Generates a common electrical environment. Synapses Chemical: Excitatory vs Inhibitory vs Modulatory Synapses Chemical: Acetylcholine (Ach) ACh receptors: NMJ ( Muscle ) current Vm-90 mV-50 mV-10 mV +50 mV Reversal potential ACh receptors: composed of subunits Ionotropic Metabotropic Nicotinic Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors ACh Receptors Acetylcholine mACh Receptors Agonist vs Antagonist agonist | ˈ ag ə nist| | ˌ øg ə n ə st| | ˌ ag ə n ɪ st| Biochemistry a substance that initiates a physiological response when combined with a receptor. Often contrasted with antagonist . antagonist Biochemistry a substance that interferes with or inhibits the physiological action of another. Compare with agonist . Agonists Antagonists Curare non-depolarising blocker depolarising blocker...
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