000_BME343_Intoduction

000_BME343_Intoduction - BME 348 Introduction to Linear...

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Introduction BME 348 Introduction to Linear Systems and Signals
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Introduction I-2 Major topics • Introduction (i.e., why bother, why me, why now, etc.) • Refresher (math, physics, common sense, etc.) • Signals and systems • Time-domain analysis of continuous-time/discrete-time systems • Continuous-time systems analysis using the Laplace transform • Discrete-time systems analysis using the z- transform • Continuous-time signal analysis: the Fourier series and the Fourier transform • Sampling • Fourier-analysis of discrete-time signals
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Introduction I-3 Why bother • System – collection of interacting “components” – common purpose • Example of systems: – Cardiovascular system: blood/oxygen delivery – Pulmonary system: exchange of gases – Renal system: balance of water, molecules, ions – Nervous system: information transmission and analysis • Classical physiology: organ/system based approach • Molecular-based approach • Engineering approach: apply engineering tools (especially those designed for analysis of the systems) to physiological systems
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Introduction I-4 Example Willem Einthoven, Dutch physiologist, was awarded the 1924 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of the electrical properties of the heart through the electrocardiograph, which he developed as a practical clinical instrument and an important tool in the diagnosis of heart disease. Electrocardiography: method of graphic tracing of the electric current generated by the heart muscle during a heartbeat. The tracing is recorded with an electrocardiograph (actually a relatively simple string galvanometer), and it provides information on the condition and performance of the heart.
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Introduction I-5 Electrocardiogram: Then and Now 1912 Typical EKG waveform Abnormal EKGs
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Introduction I-6 Other examples • Nervous systems • Cardiovascular system • Muscle
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Introduction I-7 Systems and Signals Physiological System Input Output Stimulus Response Physiological System Input Output Controller Action Disturbance Feedback System
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Introduction I-8 Examples • Knee-jerk reflex (muscle stretch reflex) – assessment of the state of the nervous system – simplest yet most fundamental Thigh Extensor Muscle System Output Reflex Center (Spinal Cord) Tap-induced Stretch Muscle Spindle Change in muscle spindle length Feedback Signal Change in afferent neutral frequency Change in efferent neutral frequency
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Introduction I-9 Other Systems • Pupillary light reflex • Drug treatment – Input: molecular configuration of the drug – Output: therapeutic effect • Electrical activity of the heart – Basic signal does not require a specific stimulus – Electrical activity can be moderated by stimuli such as exercise
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This note was uploaded on 09/28/2009 for the course BME 343 taught by Professor Emelianov during the Fall '09 term at University of Texas.

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000_BME343_Intoduction - BME 348 Introduction to Linear...

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