GEO1111 midterm 1.docx - GEO1111 midterm 1 Lecture 1 Only info from powerpoints will be on midterm\/exam Illuminated matter\/objects in the sky is NOT

GEO1111 midterm 1.docx - GEO1111 midterm 1 Lecture 1 Only...

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GEO1111 midterm 1 Lecture 1 - Only info from powerpoints will be on midterm/exam - Illuminated matter/objects in the sky is NOT stationary - Greek planet = wander - Earth = Geocentric; Sun = Copericcus - Every planet orbits an imaginary centre (except for the sun…) - Kepler: Sun = Centre NOT EARTH - *Which object is the centre? o Geocentric = Earth o Heliocentric = Sun - *Closest cousin to Earth within the solar system: moon (our satellite) - Asteroids are in between planets - Terrestrial = similar to Earth - Pluto is denoted from being a planet as it has not cleared its neighbourhood from other objects (not enough of a gravitational pull) - Shadow: same side facing the sun will always face the sun while the other side never does nor ever will (cold vs hot) - Venus = Earth’s twin - Mercury & Venus have similar densities - *Which among the terrestrial planets has the lowest density? o MARS - There is evidence of water (liquid form) on Mars o So, hydrosphere + biosphere most likely = atmosphere - Jupiter is red because there is storm constantly occurring - *Jupiter & Mars have the most satellites - Tidal energy on IO melts surface on Jupiter (waves on Earth) - Saturn has the most prominent ring o Gas giant, deep Hydrogen (H) layer (liquid & metallic) - Gas giants = Jovienne Planets - *Asteroid belt is found between Mars & Jupiter - *What type of cores do terrestrial planets have? o METALLIC - Every 30 microseconds something hits Earth but it’s so small there’s no impact - T/F: Impacts can result in both warming or cooling depending on where it is. o TRUE - Doppler Effect (firetruck) o soundwave/pitch o *Can we see a doppler effect in light waves? YES. 1
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- Cannot form substance heavier than iron in a star unless that star dies o Star death = energy released, element > 26 - *Which elements can be formed from o Big Bang: o During a star’s life: o After a star’s death: - Nebula = cloud (weird shape, light atoms/molecules) - Cooling to densification to gravity is required to form. - Only way to make big objects from smaller objects: Repeated collision Lecture 2 - No spaces empty in the center of the earth - Earth is a blue dot from space - Space is a vacuum, les then 1 atom per m2 Oort cloud - Starts at 3500 AU (1 AU = distance between earth and sun) - Consists of specks, flakes and balls of ice Heliosphere - At 200 AU, which is the edge of the solar system - Represents the outer reach of solar winds - At 55-30 AU there’s the Keiper belt which consists of icy objects and Pluto and Eris - Neptune’s orbit is the Keiper belt’s inner edge Comets and asteroids - Escaped being made into planetesimals, so they are made of materials of the earliest of the evolution of the universe so they can tell us about our planet - Comets o Expel gas and dust as they approach the sun o Tails always point way from sun - Meteorites that hit earth are fragments of comets and asteroids o Meteors when still in space o Thought to be fragments of planetesimals that had differentiated into mantle and core - Asteroids o
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