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GEO1111 midterm 1Lecture 1 -Only info from powerpoints will be on midterm/exam-Illuminated matter/objects in the sky is NOT stationary -Greek planet = wander-Earth = Geocentric; Sun = Copericcus -Every planet orbits an imaginary centre (except for the sun…)-Kepler: Sun = Centre NOT EARTH-*Which object is the centre?oGeocentric = EarthoHeliocentric = Sun-*Closest cousin to Earth within the solar system: moon (our satellite)-Asteroids are in between planets-Terrestrial = similar to Earth-Pluto is denoted from being a planet as it has not cleared its neighbourhood from other objects (not enough of a gravitational pull)-Shadow: same side facing the sun will always face the sun while the other side never does nor ever will (cold vs hot)-Venus = Earth’s twin-Mercury & Venus have similar densities-*Which among the terrestrial planets has the lowest density? oMARS-There is evidence of water (liquid form) on MarsoSo, hydrosphere + biosphere most likely = atmosphere -Jupiter is red because there is storm constantly occurring-*Jupiter & Mars have the most satellites -Tidal energy on IO melts surface on Jupiter (waves on Earth)-Saturn has the most prominent ringoGas giant, deep Hydrogen (H) layer (liquid & metallic)-Gas giants = Jovienne Planets-*Asteroid belt is found between Mars & Jupiter-*What type of cores do terrestrial planets have?oMETALLIC-Every 30 microseconds something hits Earth but it’s so small there’s no impact-T/F: Impacts can result in both warming or cooling depending on where it is.oTRUE-Doppler Effect (firetruck)osoundwave/pitcho*Can we see a doppler effect in light waves? YES.1
-Cannot form substance heavier than iron in a star unless that star diesoStar death = energy released, element > 26-*Which elements can be formed fromoBig Bang:oDuring a star’s life:oAfter a star’s death:-Nebula = cloud (weird shape, light atoms/molecules)-Cooling to densification to gravity is required to form.-Only way to make big objects from smaller objects: Repeated collisionLecture 2-No spaces empty in the center of the earth-Earth is a blue dot from space-Space is a vacuum, les then 1 atom per m2Oort cloud-Starts at 3500 AU (1 AU = distance between earth and sun)-Consists of specks, flakes and balls of iceHeliosphere-At 200 AU, which is the edge of the solar system-Represents the outer reach of solar winds-At 55-30 AU there’s the Keiper belt which consists of icy objects and Pluto and Eris-Neptune’s orbit is the Keiper belt’s inner edgeComets and asteroids-Escaped being made into planetesimals, so they are made of materials of the earliest of the evolution of the universe so they can tell us about our planet-CometsoExpel gas and dust as they approach the sunoTails always point way from sun-Meteorites that hit earth are fragments of comets and asteroidsoMeteors when still in spaceoThought to be fragments of planetesimals that had differentiated into mantle and core-Asteroidso