Unformatted text preview: Chapter 2 Understanding HealthRelated Fitness Understanding Health Related Fitness "Fitness isn't just for highly skilled athletes. It is for all of us. It's our natural state of being, particularly when we are young. Being out of shape is really being out of sorts with ourselves" Kenneth H. Cooper, M.D., The Aerobics Way Cardiovascular Fitness
Objectives: Define cardiovascular fitness, muscular fitness, & flexibility Explain benefits of regular physical activity Explain the relationship between cardiovascular fitness and heart disease Identify FITT formula components Identify the benefits of resistance training Identify the benefits of flexibility Describe the components of a workout and the importance of each Identify when the environment is not safe to exercise Physical Activity Recommendations Surgeon General (1996) recommends 30 minutes of activity on most, if not all, days of the week. Institute of Medicine (2002) recommends a total of 60 minutes of moderately intense physical activity daily. Dietary Guidelines (2005) recommends 60 minutes and up to 90 minutes of daily activity to maintain weight loss. Recommendations for Children National Sports and Physical Education (2003) recommends at least 60 minutes, and up to several hours of physical activity per day Health Related Fitness Cardiovascular fitness Muscular Strength Muscular Endurance Flexibility Body Composition Skill Related Fitness Agility Balance Coordination Reaction Time Speed Power Cardiovascular Terms Cardiovascular fitness: the ability of the heart, lungs, circulatory system, and energy supply system to perform at optimum levels for extended period of times Cardiovascular endurance: the ability of the body to perform prolonged, largemuscle, dynamic exercise at moderate to high levels of intensity Aerobic: in the presence of oxygen Cardiovascular Fitness Often referred to as the most important component of healthrelated fitness By moderately increasing daily activity, significant health benefits can be achieved Additional benefits can be gained from greater amounts of physical activity Health & Physical Activity Levels 250,000 lives are lost each year due to inactivity 60% of American adults are not regularly physically active Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States with an estimated cost economic cost of $385 billion annually Benefits of Cardiovascular Activity Reduces the risk of heart disease & stroke Decreases resting heart rate Increases stroke volume Decreases blood pressure Increases collateral circulation Decreases percent body fat Increases the strength of connective tissue Additional Benefits Reduces mental anxiety & depression Increases cognitive abilities Improves sleep patterns Decreases signs of the aging process Improves stress management Cardiovascular System The Heart The heart becomes stronger with exercise Increased stroke volume Decreased resting heart rate Exercise Prescription for Cardiovascular Fitness
Frequency Intensity Time Type FITT Formula FITT Formula Frequency Number of exercise sessions per week Recommendations according to the ACSM: To improve fitness, 35 times per week If weight loss is your goal, exercise at least 30 minutes for five days each week FITT Formula Intensity How hard one is working Measured by Exercising heart rate RPE Talk test Exercising Heart Rate Target Heart Rate (THR): intensity of training necessary to achieve cardiovascular improvements Maximum Heart Rate (MHR) MHR = 220 - age THR zone 55-90% of MHR 50-85% of HRR FITT Formula Time Length or duration of the exercise session 20 60 minutes of continuous or intermittent activity is needed to achieve benefits Intensity and Time are interdependent FITT Formula Type Mode of exercise It must fulfill the requirements for intensity and duration Examples: running, walking, swimming, biking, step aerobics, some sports Components of an Exercise Session Warmup PreStretch Activity Cool Down and Stretch Principles of Fitness Training Overload & Adaptation Specificity Individual Differences Reversibility Principle of Overload & Adaptation Must stress body beyond normal levels Body adapts to new load Plateau occurs Overload applied again for additional gains Applies to cardiovascular fitness, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility Principle of Specificity Training for a particular activity, or isolating a specific muscle group and/or movement pattern one would like to improve Isolating a specific muscle group Workouts must be specific to goals Modify intensity, duration, and mode Is crosstraining necessary??? Principle of Individual Differences Individuals will respond differently to the same training protocol Different responses due to: Different fitness levels at beginning of training Genetic composition Age Gender Principle of Reversibility The process of losing benefits with cessation of activity Process applies to: Physiological changes will begin within two weeks of detraining and continue for months Cardiovascular Fitness Muscular strength & endurance Flexibility A Complete Physical Activity Program 3 principle components: aerobic exercise, strength training exercise, and flexibility training Consistency is more important than the intensity Aerobic training: 35 days/week (at least 20 min.) Strength training: 23 days/week (23 upper body and lower body exercises) Stretch everyday (hold each stretch a minimum of 15 seconds) What is muscular fitness? Muscular strength: the force or tension a muscle or muscle group can exert against a resistance in one maximal effort Muscular endurance: the ability or capacity of a muscle group to perform repeated contractions against a load, or to sustain a contraction for an extended period of time Recommendations According to the 1998 ACSM position stand: 23 days per week 810 muscle groups 12 sets 812 repetitions Benefits of Muscular Fitness Quality of Life An increase in muscular strength, power, and endurance Higher percentage of muscle mass Improved posture Increased metabolic rate Improved ease of movement Increased resistance to muscle fatigue Increased strength of tendons, ligaments, and bones Decreased risk of low back pain Increased energy and vitality Effective Training Frequency Load Repetition Set Recovery Repetitionmaximum Intensity Training for Best Results Prescription for developing muscular strength is more intense than for endurance Repetitions decrease from 8 to 1 Number of sets increase from 3 to 5 Intensity level increases to 80 to 100 percent The rest period lasts 35 minutes Beginning Strength Training Guidelines Preparation Lifting Safety Etiquette Guidelines Preparation Establish goals Don't train on an empty stomach Consume a balanced diet daily Stay hydrated Dress properly Guidelines Lifting Always warmup Progress slowly Work all major muscle groups Consider balance Work the larger muscle groups first Complete multijoint exercises before doing single joint exercises Keep weights close to your body Use a full range of motion Stretch what you strengthen Avoid arching the back Movement should be slow and controlled Breathe Avoid breath holding Expect muscle soreness Allow 4872 hours of recovery Get plenty of rest Enlist a workout buddy Use a workout log Guidelines Safety Learn the rules at your facility Don't overtrain; listen to your body Never sacrifice form for additional repetitions or weight Avoid high risk exercises Use the 90 degree rule when squatting; avoid full squats for good knee health Use collars Use experienced spotters for heavy lifting Always lift free weights with a partner Avoid locking out or hyperextending any joints while lifting Guidelines Etiquette Practice good weight room etiquette; don't drop or bang the weights Always rerack free weights Use a towel to wipe equipment when you are done at an exercise station Be considerate of others who are waiting to use the equipment Muscle Soreness Acute muscle soreness Delayedonset muscle soreness Prevention of DOMS Maintain an appropriate training program Reduce the eccentric component Gradually increase the intensity Vitamin E Signs of Overtraining Decrease in physical performance Weight loss Increase in muscle soreness Increase in resting heart rate Sleeplessness Nausea after a workout Constant fatigue Decreased interest in exercise Weight Training Myths Weighttraining causes one to lose flexibility Resistance training or "spot reducing" is beneficial in reducing deposits of fat from specific areas on the body Fat will be converted to muscle with resistance training Dietary supplements will make one bigger and stronger Performance enhancing drugs such as steroids, growth hormones, diuretics, and metabolism boosters will help make one fit Women will become masculine in appearance by participating in resistance training activities Kids should not weight train Flexibility The range of motion in any particular joint Influencing factors: Gender Age Genetic composition Activity level Muscle core temperature Previous or current injury Flexibility cont... Benefits: Functional Strength The ability to perform daily activities without developing muscle strains or tears and The ability to participate in sports with enhanced performance Being able to apply your strength to a particular activity Exercise Considerations Injuries Injury prevention requires proper technique, equipment, shoes, and clothing Weight bearing vs. Nonweight bearing activities Common injuries: sprains, strains, and other musculoskeletal problems PAIN is a signal that something is WRONG!!!! RICE most injuries Considerations cont... Proper Footwear Sport specific shoes are highly recommended Cross trainers vs. Running shoes Considerations cont... Environment Conditions Cold weather exercise layer clothes and pick fabrics that wick away moisture from the body Warm weather exercise acclimate to the heat and humidity Considerations cont... Guidelines for exercising in the heat: Stay hydrated with cool water Dress appropriately in clothes that can wick moisture away from the body Limit exposure time Exercise with a buddy, or let someone know your plan and stick to it Wear sunglasses for eye protection Considerations cont... Exercise during the coolest time of the day, if possible Stop activity if you experience nausea, dizziness, or extreme headache Monitor your heart rate, staying within your target heart rate zone Check the heat index to make sure it is safe to exercise Considerations cont... What is the first sign of dehydration? Prehydrate drink before thirst occurs and before exercising Standard recommendation is eight 8 oz glasses of water a day This amount should be increased with exercise Drink before, during, and after aerobic exercise Considerations cont... Electrolyte levels should be carefully maintained rehydrate with a sport drink if an activity lasts 6090 minutes or longer Hyponatremia (a.k.a., water intoxication) is caused by overhydration. Characterized by low sodium concentration in the blood It can be life threatening Considerations cont... Illness If you have cold symptoms with no fever, then possibility a light workout might make you feel better Mild to moderate exercise has been shown to enhance the immune system, and to reduce risk of respirator infections Considerations cont... Other common sense concerns when exercising: Lightning Air pollution Allergens Night exercise Nutrition Concerns Eating should take place at least two hours prior to exercise for maximum comfort Fuel your body with low fat and high carbohydrate foods The Biggest Risk to Exercise is Not Starting It is never too early or too late to start ENJOY IT! Make a plan and write it down Get a workout buddy Summary Healthrelated fitness vs. Skillrelated fitness Cardiovascular fitness is the most important component of health related fitness Cardiovascular activity reduces the risk of heart disease & stroke by a decreased resting heart rate, increased stroke volume, decreased blood pressure, and increased collateral circulation Benefits of regular physical activity are numerous and include decreased percent body fat, increased strength of connective tissue, reduced mental anxiety & depression, increased cognitive abilities, improved sleep patterns, decreased signs of the aging process, and improved stress management Summary cont... FITT formula Components of a workout Principles of fitness training Benefits of resistance training include a higher percentage of muscle mass, improved posture, increased metabolic rate, improved ease of movement, increased resistance to muscle fatigue, increased strength of tendons, ligaments, and bones, decreased risk of low back pain, and increased energy and vitality Benefits of flexibility include the ability to perform daily activities without developing muscle strains or tears and the ability to participate in sports with enhanced performance Summary cont... Consider environmental conditions such as temperature, air pollution, windchill, altitude, humidity, allergens, and lightning before exercising Other considerations when exercising include proper clothing, shoes, illness, injury, and night exercise Contacts and Websites
American College of Sports Medicine http://www.acsm.org/index.asp American Council of Exercise Cardiovascular Fitness Facts www.acefitness.org/fitfacts/fitfacts_list.cfm#1 American Running Association http://www.americanrunning.org Contacts and Websites cont...
American Heart Association www.americanheart.org/statistics American Heart Association website for tips, heath facts, a personal trainer and more www.justmove.org/fitnessnews ...
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- Fall '07
- heart rate, strength training, Physical exercise, Weight training