Lecture Notes Chapter 43

Lecture Notes Chapter 43 - Chapter 43 The Immune System...

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1 Chapter 43 The Immune System Reconnaissance, Recognition, and Response An animal must defend itself from pathogens it may encounter many dangerous pathogens in the environment Bacteria Staphylococci, Streptococci Pneumonia, strep throat, would infections Mycobacteria Tuberculosis, Hansens’ disease Vibrio , Yserbia, Salmonella Cholera, plague, thyphoid Clostridium Tetanus, gangrene Syphilis Single-celled parasites Malaria Toxoplasmosis Fungi Blamed for the world-wide decline of amphibians (source: Wikipedia) Success stories The knowledge of pathogen transmission and the immune system has conquered the (historically) worst diseases of humans Smallpox Variola virus Extremely infectious
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2 30% morbidity 300–500 million deaths during the 20 th century Active immunization with vaccinia virus has eradicated the disease In1980, the WHO certified that the world was free of naturally occurring smallpox Plague = “The Black Death” 14 th century pandemic reduced the world human population by 30-50% Knowledge of transmission by fleas and rats as vectors led to sanitation infrastructure Sewer systems Clean water supply The immune system is responsible for other pathological conditions Inflammation A natural reaction of the immune system to an infection Invasion of tissue by parasites, bacteria, fungi, viruses But: Sometimes occurs in the absence of a pathogen Can cause pain and tissue destruction Linked to cancer Allergies Immune system responds to foreign substances that are non-pathogenic and a normal aspect of life Hay fever, contact rashes, pet allergies, dust allergies Autotimmune diseases Immune system attacks the body’s own tissues o Rheumatoid arthritis o Myastenia gravis o Multiple sclerosis o Lupus erythematosus Immunodeficiencies Acquired immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) = “bubble boy” syndrome Organ rejection after transplantation Blood transfusion o Hemolytic disease of the newborn Two major kinds of body defenses have evolved that counter infections: Innate immunity Is present before any exposure to pathogens and is effective from the time of birth Involves nonspecific responses to pathogens Acquired immunity, also called adaptive immunity
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3 Develops only after exposure to inducing agents such as microbes, toxins, or other foreign substances Involves a very specific response to pathogens Innate immunity provides broad defenses against infection A pathogen that successfully breaks through an animal’s external defenses soon encounters several innate cellular and chemical mechanisms that impede its attack on the body Intact skin and mucous membranes Form physical barriers that bar the entry of microorganisms and viruses Certain cells of the mucous membranes produce mucus A viscous fluid that traps microbes and other particles
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This note was uploaded on 09/28/2009 for the course BIOL 172 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at Hawaii.

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Lecture Notes Chapter 43 - Chapter 43 The Immune System...

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