Lecture_Notes_Chapter_40 - BIOL 172 Lecture notes 2009...

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BIOL 172 Lecture notes 2009 Chapter 40 Animal Structure and Function The comparative study of animals reveals that form and function are closely correlated Physical laws and the need to exchange materials with the environment place certain limits on - the range of animal forms - Size of cells - Shape of animals - Size of animals The term morphology refers to the outward appearance (shape, structure, colour, pattern) of an organism and its component parts Average size of a cell: 50-100 μ m (or: 0.05 – 0.1 mm) Evolutionary convergence - Reflects different species’ independent adaptation to a similar environmental challenge Limiting factors for body size - Weight carrying capacity of the supporting biological structures - Bones - Cellulose - Transport of soluble materials through a vascular system - Circulatory or cardiovascular system in animals - vascular system (Xylem, Phloem) in plants Body size, cell size and shape affect interactions with the environment - All living cells must be bathed in aqueous medium - Small organisms such as an amoeba or Hydra have all cells bathed in water - Larger animals have shapes that put a large surface area in contact with the environment - Others have developed extensive circulatory and respiratory systems for exchange of materials with environment Organisms exchange material and energy with the environment Organic substances Gas (oxygen, carbondioxide) Water Ions, salts Diffusion depends on the area of permeable surface - Organs and structures specializing in substance exchange have a vastly increased surface area
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Lungs Kidneys Gills Gut, resorptive organs Amount of particle diffusion depends on the distance to be covered - Only small organisms and multicellular organisms with a few cellular layers can
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This note was uploaded on 09/28/2009 for the course BIOL 172 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at Hawaii.

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Lecture_Notes_Chapter_40 - BIOL 172 Lecture notes 2009...

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