325usum08DevelopGenOrg

325usum08DevelopGenOrg - Today Development and Genome...

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Exam #2 W 7/9 in class Today: Development and Genome Organization
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Development: differentiating cells to become an organism
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Cells function differently because they express different genes.
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The proper control of gene expression is critical for proper development.
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So development in animals is one way.
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Inverse relationship between smoking and weight: more smoking : less weight
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Effect of smoking on fetal development and how that can affect adults
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Adults exposed to smoke as fetuses have higher risk of obesity and heart disease
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What is the connection?
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Obesity, Diabetes, Heart Disease, High Blood Pressure, Some Cancers all may have some origins during fetal development.
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Adults metabolism may react to poor nutrition as fetuses… Adaptation of Thriftiness or Catch Up Growth.
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Adults metabolism may react to poor nutrition as fetuses…Adaptation of Thriftiness or Catch Up Growth. Study of babies born during Dutch famine of 1944-45…
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Adults metabolism may react to poor nutrition as fetuses…Adaptation of Thriftiness or Catch Up Growth. Study of babies born during Dutch famine of 1944-45… 20 years later found that these babies had higher rates of obesity.
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Adults metabolism may react to poor nutrition as fetuses…Adaptation of Thriftiness or Catch Up Growth. Study of babies born during Dutch famine of 1944-45… 20 years later found that these babies had higher rates of obesity. Precise mechanism is not known
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What about smoking? 17,000 births studied and checked at age 16 and 33. Fetuses exposed to smoking had increased rate of obesity.
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What about smoking? 17,000 births studied and checked at age 16 and 33. Fetuses exposed to smoking had increased rate of obesity and more smoking meant more obesity.
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What about smoking? 17,000 births studied and checked at age 16 and 33. Fetuses exposed to smoking had increased rate of obesity and more smoking meant more obesity. For Mom’s who abstained during pregnancy, no effect on fetus or as adult.
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What about smoking? 17,000 births studied and checked at age 16 and 33. Fetuses exposed to smoking had increased rate of obesity and more smoking meant more obesity. Smoking during first trimester had same effect as during whole pregnancy.
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What about smoking? For diabetes more than 10 cigarettes per day gave a 4 times greater risk of diabetes.
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What about smoking? Risk of high blood pressure also increases with increased exposure to fetus of smoking during pregnancy
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Why?
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Why? Nicotine can inhibit hunger and increase energy expenditure. This can lead to poor fetal nutrition.
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Why? Nicotine causes constriction of blood vessels, and may limit blood flow to the fetus.
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AAL 38.8 Mammalian circulation
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Nicotine causes blood vessels to constrict
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CO in blood decreases delivery of O
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This note was uploaded on 09/28/2009 for the course BIO 325 taught by Professor Saxena during the Summer '08 term at University of Texas.

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325usum08DevelopGenOrg - Today Development and Genome...

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