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Unformatted text preview: About Clickers About You may discuss all of your answers with your neighbors before you enter your You answer into the clicker program. answer You may not bring anyone else’s clicker into class and answer for them. Anyone You caught with more than one clicker will fail and so will the student whose clicker you are using. are Worth 50 pts. Worth There will be several hundred clicker questions asked during the semester. How There many points you receive will be determined by taking the percentage of correct answers that you got and multiplying it times the 50 possible points. answers So, if you got 20% of the clicker questions correct, then 0.20 x 50 pts. = 10 points 0.20 If you got 50% correct, you would get 0.50 x 50 pts = 25 pts. During the semester a student will occasionally forget his/her clicker or not come During to class or the battery will die or some problem will develop. To compensate for such problems, I will add 10% additional pts to your score at the end of the semester. semester. Clicker Question Clicker Which is an example of deductive reasoning? Which reasoning?
1) The population of the USA is over 300 million. 2) I measured the body temperature of hundreds 2) of Mexican free-tailed bats and concluded that they do not hibernate. they 3) Webster’s dictionary says that birds are warm 3) blooded, have feathers and wings. Archaeopteryx is a fossil vertebrate and has Archaeopteryx wings & feathers. Based on the definition, I would guess that it probably was warm blooded. blooded.
3 0% Clicker Question Clicker Which is an example of inductive nductive reasoning?
1) Planets have an elliptical orbit; they are round 1) in shape and are large. Pluto has these characteristics and so it is a planet. characteristics 2) I dissected two squid and noticed there were 2) 3 chambers in the heart. I think that it is likely that all squid have 3 chambered heats. that 3) Hybrid cars get more miles/gallon than 3) conventional cars. I just bought a Prius hybrid. I expect to get great gas mileage. hybrid.
4 0% And now the lecture. And DARWIN’S EVIDENCE I DARWIN’S
QUESTIONS QUESTIONS HOW DO WE ACCOUNT FOR THE ORIGIN? DIVERSITY? ADAPTATION SCALA NATURAE? of organisms HYPOTHESES: HYPOTHESES:
DEVINE CREATION DEVINE
1.Sudden creation from nothing 2. Young Earth (~ 6,000 years) 3. Fixity of species 4. Separate ancestry for humans & apes humans 5. The “Deluge” explains the presence & distribution of presence fossils EVOLUTION EVOLUTION
1. No information on the Origin 2. Old Earth (millions of years) 3. Species change over time 4. Common ancestry for humans & apes 5. The “Deluge” doesn’t explain the presence & distribution of fossils Shift towards evolution….because Shift Religious dogmatism began to weaken
Pentecostal Church Methodists Episcopalians Baptists Anglicans Lutherans Unitarians Protestant Presbyterians Mennonites Catholic Church Shift towards evolution….because Shift Religious Shift dogmatism began to weaken from religious to secular reasoning Science began to explain things that Science used to be inexplicable used SCIENTIFIC ADVANCES SCIENTIFIC Telescope: Earth is NOT the center of the Universe Universe Microscope: Microbes exist & cause Microbes disease disease SCIENTFIC ADVANCES SCIENTFIC Fossils Show change over time Show extinction Voyages Many Many of Discovery species found that were not mentioned in the Bible e.g. kangaroos, giant moa birds in SCIENTFIC ADVANCES SCIENTFIC Geology Evidence of an old Earth Lamarck Lamarck & Darwin came up with evolutionary mechanisms evolutionary DARWIN’S HYPOTHESIS DARWIN’S Individuals vary Populations tend to over-breed Struggle for existence Survival of the fittest Variations are inherited New species develop Deduction (Prediction) 1: Deduction If the hypothesis of evolution is correct then variations should exist among organisms Test: look at domestic animals Deduction (Prediction) 1: Deduction If the hypothesis of evolution is correct then variations should exist among organisms Test: look at wild populations How does the variation occur? How Humans Humans do it by selecting which animals breed together—Artificial together—Artificial selection. selection. Arguing by analogy Arguing nature could produce variation the same way—Natural way—Natural selection. Deduction (Prediction) 1: Deduction Data: Evaluation: ? What should we conclude? What
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The data prove the hypothesis The data disprove the hypothesis The data support the hypothesis The data do not support the The hypothesis hypothesis As Francis Bacon said, we should not make conclusions, just collect data. data.
5 Deduction (Prediction) 2 Deduction If the hypothesis of evolution is correct then more offspring are born than will then survive to reproduce survive Test: Compare number born & their survival Deduction (Prediction) 2 Deduction
Data: Data: e.g. An orchid can produce a million seeds million Deduction (Prediction) 2 Deduction
Data: Data: e.g. A salmon might produce 28 million 28 eggs/season eggs/season Deduction (Prediction) 2 Deduction
Data: Data: e.g. An oyster can produce 100 million eggs/ e.g. spawning Deduction (Prediction) 2 Deduction
Data: Data: A puffball fungus puffball can produce billions of spores of Evaluation: Evaluation: Many are born & Many few survive SPORES Clicker Question Clicker What should we conclude?
The data prove the hypothesis. 2) The data disprove the hypothesis 3) None of the above
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3 Deduction (Prediction) 3 Deduction If the hypothesis of evolution is correct then differences should exist among then offspring that survive & breed offspring & those that don’t. those Test: Look for differences Selection Selection
In the farm yard, the farmer decides who survives and In lives to breed. Those individuals with the preferred traits are the ones chosen to breed and pass their traits on to the next generation---ARTIFICIAL traits ARTIFICIAL SELECTION. SELECTION. Arguing by analogy, nature could do the same thing. Organisms that have better variations would have Organisms an advantage and survive---NATURAL SELECTION an NATURAL Deduction (Prediction) 3 Deduction
Data: Difficult to obtain—natural selection is slow Evaluation: Natural selection is probable (Darwin) Natural selection in certain (Today) Data support the hypothesis What was the most compelling argument Darwin offered for Natural Selection being the causative Natural agent for evolution? agent 1) He argued mutation could not do it alone 2) He used the analogy of artificial selection 3) He used the fossil record as evidence 4) He used pesticide resistance in insects as 4) evidence of natural selection evidence 5) He argued that Thomas Malthus said that 5) over-population could cause evolution over-population 0%
5 Deduction (Prediction) 4 Deduction If the hypothesis of evolution is correct then variations important to survival must be then inherited. inherited. Test: No good test available (Darwin’s time) Inheritance not understood, but we can look at the artificial selection on the farm. we Deduction (Prediction) 4 Deduction
Evaluation: Traits are usually passed on. Data support the hypothesis…….But…….. But any conclusion is not strong because we don’t understand heredity And…… And….There is the Fleeming Jenkin’s argument And…. Good traits will be swamped out by breeding Deduction (Prediction) 5 Deduction If the hypothesis of evolution is correct then the Earth must be old so that evolution then had time to occur. had Test: Look at the geological record Deduction (Prediction) 5 Deduction
Data: Depth Data: of the canyons of suggests age Deduction (Prediction) 5 Deduction
Data: Depth Data: of the canyons of suggests age Deduction (Prediction) 5 Deduction
Data: Thickness of the of the rock strata rock suggests age Deduction (Prediction) 5 Deduction If the hypothesis of evolution is correct then the Earth must be old so that evolution then had time to occur. had Evaluation: Earth’s age is unknown (Darwin) Appears to be old Appears Data support hypothesis but……… but……… BUT …….. BUT
THERE IS SO MUCH MORE TO LEARN: As Huxley said: As “It matters not what you would prefer but what is true.” It is a question of evidence! WE NEED MORE EVIDENCE CHECK IN NEXT LECTURE ...
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This note was uploaded on 09/28/2009 for the course BIO 200 taught by Professor Herreid during the Spring '07 term at SUNY Buffalo.
- Spring '07