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Unformatted text preview: You Must Remember This You Homework on the article in the lab manual is due in lab next week. due Quizzes in lab start next week. Lab fee certificates are due in lab next week. There is a website for the course where the There lab and lecture material are posted. www.bio200.buffalo.edu www.bio200.buffalo.edu If you just joined the class, you have already If missed a lab and can not make it up, but you need to know the material. need Register your Clickers Register Go to the following link to get Go information about using your clickers, including how to register them in BlackBoard. http://ubit.buffalo.edu/ubclicks/students/ http://ubit.buffalo.edu/ubclicks/students/ Item #1 is how you register. Item #2 is how you use them in the classroom. Clicker Question Clicker Which idea was not part of Darwin’s hypothesis? 1) Survival of the fittest 2) Mutation causes variation 3) Populations tend to over-breed 4) New species develop because of 4) changes in the environment causes natural selection natural 5) All of the above are part of his 5) 0% hypothesis hypothesis 1 0% 2 0% 3 60 4 0% 0% 5 Clicker Question Clicker Did Darwin focus on the origin of life? 1) Yes, he considered a variety of 1) ideas. ideas. 2) Yes, he thought that life originated 2) from chemicals here on Earth. from 3) Yes, he thought life originated in 3) hydrothermal vents. hydrothermal 4) No, he didn’t focus on it. 0% 1 0% 2 60 3 0% 0% 4 DARWIN’S HYPOTHESIS DARWIN’S Individuals vary Populations tend to over-breed Struggle for existence Survival of the fittest Variations are inherited New species develop DARWIN’S EVIDENCE II DARWIN’S Deduction (Prediction) 6 Deduction If the hypothesis of evolution is correct then fossils should show evidence of change through time change Test: Study fossils at various depths in rock Test: strata strata Paleontology= study of ancient life (fossils) Deduction (Prediction) 6 Deduction Data: Types of fossils material Original Deduction (Prediction) 6 Deduction Data: Types of fossils material Original Deduction (Prediction) 6 Deduction Data: Types of fossils Permineralization Permineralization e.g. = petrification = mineralization of organic matter. mineralization petrified forests buried in volcanic ash Deduction (Prediction) 6 Deduction Data: Types of fossils Carbonized Carbonized film = a silhouette of blackened carbon residue of an organism carbon Deduction (Prediction) 6 Deduction Data: Types of fossils = impressions of an organism in rock Mold Deduction (Prediction) 6 Deduction Data: Types of fossils Cast Cast = a mold filled-in with mud or stone leaving a replica of the organism organism Deduction (Prediction) 6 Deduction Data: Types of fossils Chemical Chemical Fossil = molecules produced by an organism left behind in rock Deduction (Prediction) 6 Deduction Data: Types of fossils Trace Trace e.g. fossil = evidence that an organism has left behind that it was present in the past. left footprints, worm tubes, feces Clicker Question Clicker What kind of fossil is this? 1.Carbonized film 2. Original material 3. Cast 4. Trace fossil 5. Mold 0% 1 0% 2 0% 3 60 0% 4 0% 5 Deduction (Prediction) 6 Deduction Evaluation: Evaluation: e.g. Many fossils of organisms exist that are no longer present on Earth exist dinosaurs, giant tree ferns, mammoths Conclusion: Life on Earth has changed Conclusion: through through time. The data support the hypothesis Clicker Question Clicker Which of the following predictions would you Which make if you were an evolutionist? evolutionist? 1) Large fossils should be in the lower rock 1) strata because they would sink faster in the sediments. the 2) There would be no particular order to the 2) fossils. fossils. 3) Older rocks would have fewer modern 3) species than younger strata. species 4) There would be a sorting based on the 4) Scala Naturae Scala 5) Complex organisms would appear in the 5) deepest sediments deepest 0% 1 0% 2 0% 3 60 0% 4 0% 5 Which of the following predictions would one most reasonably make if the creationist hypothesis were correct? were 1) Large fossils should be in the lower rock 1) strata because they would sink faster in the sediments. the 2) There would be no particular order to the 2) fossils. fossils. 3) Older rocks would have fewer modern 3) species than younger strata. species 4) There would be a sorting based on the 4) Scala Naturae Scala 5) Complex organisms would appear in the 5) deepest sediments deepest 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 1 2 3 4 5 60 Deduction (Prediction) 7 Deduction If the hypothesis of evolution is correct then older strata should have fewer modern then species than younger strata. species Test: Compare species in rock strata Deduction (Prediction) 7 Deduction Data: From Charles Lyell (1854) Fossils known 226 569 1,021 1,238 % Still alive alive 96% 42% 17% 3% Mollusks Mollusks Recent Pliocene ----------------2 mya Older Pliocene ----------------5 mya Miocene ----------------25 mya Miocene Eocene ----------------55 mya Evaluation: Data support the evolution hypothesis Data do Not support the creation hypothesis Data DEDUCTION (PREDICTION) 8 DEDUCTION If the hypothesis of evolution is correct then the simplest organisms should occur in then the oldest strata the Test: compare species in rock strata DEDUCTION (PREDICTION) 8 DEDUCTION Evaluation: Data are NOT consistent with Divine Creation (i.e. creation in a few days) (i.e. Data are consistent with: Evolution Multiple creations (Cuvier’s Catastrophe Hypothesis) DEDUCTION (PREDICTION) 9 DEDUCTION If the hypothesis of evolution is correct then intermediate links between fossils must then exist. exist. Test: Look for transitional species (“missing links”) (“missing Bird Features •Wings •True feathers •Wishbone •Pneumatic bones •Reversed big toe •Bipedal Reptile Features •Bony tail with free vertebrae •3 claws on wing •Long snout, no beak •Jaws with teeth •Flat breast bone •Reptilian skull The data are too sparse. The hypothesis is neither supported nor rejected SUMMARY SUMMARY At At the time of Darwin’s death in 1882 at the age of 73 most biologists were convinced that evolution had occurred convinced BUT SUMMARY SUMMARY BUT, the mechanism of evolution was BUT, uncertain. uncertain. I Hate arguments Natural Selection Acquired Characteristics A miracle directed by God Tune in next time ! ...
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