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Unformatted text preview: 9-18-09 Tignor P. 517-537I. European Exploration and ExpansionA. Many Europeans believed the Ottoman capture of Constantinople threatened their traditional overland access to Asia markets. They began to search elsewhere for expansion.B. The Portuguese in Africa and Asia1. The Portuguese explored the West African coast in the fourteenth century.a. They hoped to reach Asia by heading south.1. They hoped to gain a cut of the Indian Ocean trade.2. They also hoped to convert non-believers 3. They also hoped to gain commercial ties with Africans4. Africa was a major source of gold.2. Navigation and Military Developmentsa. New technology and borrowed information aided their ocean voyages.b. They also developed tacking (sailing against the wind)c. Using the compass and the astrolabe, they determined latituded. Using Greek and Arab knowledge, Muslim mariners, and their own experience, they developed hybrid ships for long-distance travel1. The carrack suitable for enclosed bodies of water2. The caravel was better for unpredictable currents and winds3. Often their vessels blended elements of bothe. Military technology also important1. Gunpowder from Chinese2. Cannons, some small enough to go on ships3. Sugar and Slavesa. In the fifteenth century, Africa became a vital trading areab. Africa became a source of gold and sugarc. The Portuguese established numerous ports of call and fortressesd. The Portuguese also occupied several islands off the coast of Africa and developed sugar plantations.e. The use of enslaved Africans from mainland on the island sugar plantations became a model that would be transported to the New World. 4.Commerce and Conquest in the Indian Oceana. Vasco de Gama first accomplished this feat1. De Gama and later Portuguese mariners were greatly aided by Muslim pilots2. Indian rulers were not impressed with his cargo.5. In the 16thcentury the Portuguese created a trading post empire in the Indian Ocean.a. They used their ships armed with cannons to capture several key ports such as Aden, Hormuz, and Melaka, Sofala, Kilwa, Goa, and Calicut.b. They used this strategic advantage to set up a pass system (the cartaz), like a tollc. Lisbon eclipsed Italian ports as the prime entry point of Asian goods to Europe....
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- Spring '08