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Chapter 4 - Chapter4 19:17 1. 2....

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Chapter 4 19:17 What can minerals tell us? 1. May contain radioactive elements-used for dating 2. Minerals that crystallize from magmas and lavas can provide information  about temperatures, as well as viscosity of the magma, type of volcano and  tectonic setting. 3. Minerals that form by evaporation in arid climates can tell us about  paleoclimatic conditions. Since some climates are controlled by latitude, we  can make general conclusions about latitude minerals that form in sea water tell us about the presence of ancient seas 6. Minerals which contain iron can record the orientation of the earths  magnetic field which yields information on latitude, and provides evidence for  drifting continents, sea floor spreading, and movement and reversal of the  earths magnetic poles. 7. Minerals in sedimentary rocks can provide information on the tectonic  setting, amount of relief, paleoclimate, and types of rocks that are eroding in  the source area 8. Minerals can also tell us about the changing chemistry of the atmosphere,  for example, the presence or absence of oxygen. Minerals- must fit all 5 1. Naturally occurring 2. Inorganic 3. Solid 4. definite chemical composition 5. orderly internal crystal structure EX. ICE is a mineral Each mineral has different physical and chemical properties which allow it to be  identified Some physical properties of mineral
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Color o Some minerals may have multiple colors Streak o  rub mineral on a streak pad and it leaves a distinctive color o streak color may be quite different from mineral color Luster o  how does the mineral look in reflected light either metallic luster or non  metallic luster Hardness o Is the resistance of a mineral to scratching. Done in lab. Use a scale 1-10 called mole hardness scale, diamond being the  hardest mineral. Each number 1-10 has a different element they use to  test mineral against. Density o  how compact molecules are, used with water or gravity o mass of a mineral divided by its volume = density (M/V=D) Crystal form o Some minerals are in the form of crystals. Crystal shape is related to the  structural arrangement of atoms within the mineral.
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