The Questions 1)He states that the nature of scientific inquiry was in fact affected by prejudice and preconceived notions that scientists had already assumed. This is proven when the author states that Broca didn’t take into account the effect that size had alone when he says “ Yet he made no attempt to measure the effect of size alone and actually stated that it cannot account for the entire difference because we know, a priori, that women are not as intelligent as men (a premise that the data were supposed to test, not rest upon)(Gould 350) This shows that Broca did not factor in height alone just because he had the notion that women were not as intelligent as men. This helps to show that even scientific data can be influenced by preconceived notions and prejudice scientists may have that can negatively affect their results.2)When Gould says women are denigrated, and surrogates for other groups he means that even though they were thought of as low, they were on top of other groups where they were used to represent groups such as African Americans and the poor due to an advantage the women may have such as race. Men also deemed women to be better than most non-white male groups, which is proven when the author states that” Women, blacks, and poor people suffered the same disparagement, but women bore the brunt of Broca's argument because he had easier access to data on women's brains( Goud 352-353). This can also be seen when he says “This juxtaposition extended into many other realms of anthropological argument, particularly to claims that, anatomically and emotionally, both women. and blacks were like whitechildren—and that white children, by the theory of recapitulation, represented an ancestral (primitive) adult stage of human evolution.” This shows that belittled, women were used as a representation of other groups and bore that responsibility just because they were thought of as inferior, but still somewhat a bit above other inferior groups.3) From the quote stated, “I do not regard as empty rhetoric the claim that women’s battles are for all of us.” It can be inferred that the author is trying to be patronizing, since he creates sympathy that he causes the reader to understand that he feels what women are going through should be everyone’s responsibility, however, it also shows that the author feels women are inferior in that they can’t fight their own battles, and it is necessary for everyone(males) to fight with women against the discrimination they face. Personal comments like these can discredit hisscientific credibility for readers of our era. This could happen because the author shows that he has some prejudice over women, and that could affect his scientific results if he were to conducta study as Borca has conducted.