SUPPL INSTR FOR CH 302 (GE 206E) - CH301_Chapter_06

SUPPL INSTR FOR CH 302 (GE 206E) - CH301_Chapter_06 -...

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CHAPTER 15: THERMODYNAMICS System: The substances under study Surroundings: The environment of a system Universe: System + Surroundings State of a system: Set of conditions that completely specifies all the properties of the system State Functions: Properties of a system whose values depend only on the state of the system Examples: Pressure, Temperature, Composition, Enthalpy, Internal Energy, Entropy Internal Energy (U): Defined as all energy contained in a substance Work: Motion against an opposing force – expansion/non-expansion Pressure-volume work (at constant P): w = -P ext ΔV; For ideal gas , w = -PΔV = -ΔnRT Reversible Isothermal Expansion: w = -nRT ln(V 2 /V 1 ) = -nRT ln(P 1 /P 2 ) Hint: nRT = P 1 V 1 Heat: Energy transferred as a result of a temperature difference
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CHAPTER 15: THERMODYNAMICS Enthalpy (H): Roughly defined as heat content of a system Absolute value of enthalpy is meaningless; only change in enthalpy (ΔH) can be measured ΔH = ΔU + Δ(PV) At constant pressure, ΔH = q p = ΔU + PΔV First Law of Thermodynamics:
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SUPPL INSTR FOR CH 302 (GE 206E) - CH301_Chapter_06 -...

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