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SUPPL INSTR FOR CH 302 (GE 206E) - CH301_Chapter_07

SUPPL INSTR FOR CH 302 (GE 206E) - CH301_Chapter_07 -...

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CHAPTER 7: THERMODYNAMICS – 2 nd & 3 rd Laws Spontaneous Change: A spontaneous process, once initiated , continues without any external influence . e.g. Rusting of iron, burning of charcoal, melting of ice, mixing of gases Spontaneity and rate of change are not related (i.e., spontaneous doesn’t mean fast ) Spontaneous Reaction: Products are more stable (favored) than reactants Entropy (S): A measure of the disorder of a system Entropy (S) values are absolute, unlike enthalpy (H) and internal energy (E) Entropy is an extensive property Entropy is a state function ΔS is path-independent Reversible Change: An infinitely long (theoretically) process in which there is an infinitesimal change in the properties of a system at every step, so that the process can be reversed and the system returned to its initial conditions. Macroscopic entropy For infinitesimal change: dS = dq rev /T For finite isothermal change: ΔS = q rev /T where q rev = reversible heat transfer
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CHAPTER 7: THERMODYNAMICS II
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