Running head: HEART FAILURE Patricia Rhinevault C155 WUT2 TaskWestern Governors UniversityHeart FailureA.Investigated Disease Process
Running head: HEART FAILURE Heart failure, also called congestive heart failure, happens when the heart is weakened and unable to effectively pump blood. Congestive heart failure is a disease that affects patients from babies to adults. Symptoms are similar in all ages with adults being the focus of this paper.It is estimated that 5.7 million Americans over 20 years of age have heart failure and it causes 1 in 9 deaths in the United Stateswith the total expense to the nation estimated at $30.7 billion dollars (CDC.org, 2019). Heart failure affects people by causing shortness of breath, decrease in energy, exercise intolerance, blood clots and swelling in the lower extremities. The disease will worsen as it progresses. Fortunately, heart failure can be effectively managed by patients using medication and lifestyle changes. Sometimes, heart failure is caused by a patient’s choices. Modifiable choices include quitting the use of illicit drugs, smoking, sedentary lifestyle, obesity and uncontrolled high blood pressure. In some cases, it is caused by genetics, age, infections, gender or race. A1. PathophysiologyHeart failure (HF) is defined as the pathophysiologic condition in which the heart is unable to generate an adequate cardiac output such that inadequate perfusion of tissues or increased diastolic filling pressure of the left ventricle, or both, occurs. Left sided heart failure results in decreased ejection fraction of less than 40% (Huether and McCance, 2018). Poor ejection fraction leads to an increase in morbidity and mortality. The heart attempts to restore normal cardiac function but this eventually leads to worsening left sided heart failure through activation of the sympathetic nervous system. The SNSstimulates the release of inotropic chemicals, specifically norepinephrine, to compensate for the decreased output by increasing heart rate and increasing peripheral vascular constriction in order to increase the mean arterial pressure to combat the reduced output. A faster rate puts stress on
Running head: HEART FAILURE the heart and can lead to an increased risk of developing an arrythmia. When norepinephrine increases systemic resistance, the afterload of the heart increase and creates more work for the heart to pump against. As cardiac output falls, renal perfusion diminishes with activation of the renin angiotensin activation system, which acts to increase peripheral vascular resistance and plasma volume, thus increasing afterload and preload further. In addition, baroreceptors in the central circulation detect the decrease in perfusion and stimulate the sympathetic nervous system to cause yet more vasoconstriction and to cause the hypothalamus to produce antidiuretic hormone.
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