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PSY 310 Exam 1 - Lecture 1 Monday 10:38 AM Prof Luhmann's...

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Prof. Luhmann's office hours: MW 11:35am-1:05pm (right after class or by appointment) E-mail is the best way to contact. Branch of philosophy How does one acquire new knowledge? How do you know what you know? Epistemology Beating you over the head with knowledge until it's just stuck in your mind Tenacity We know knowledge because of people who we deemed as knowledgeable enough Authority Personal experience Experience Roots of Knowledge These roots to knowledge are misleading. Just because we've been told something over and over again does not mean that it's true. Just because someone knowledgeable tells us something, doesn't mean that we're right. Just because you learn of someone else's experience, doesn't mean that it applies to everyone. All beautiful people are good. Karen is beautiful. Therefore, Karen is good. Typically we can't use logic in most cases. We go by a method of Science, which is what we'll be learning in this class. Reason and Logic Example Question: (a) You heard the phrase many times. (b) Your car crashed into a tree after passing a black cat on the road. (Experience) (c) You heard a veterinarian say so. (Authority) (d) You conducted a methodologically sound experiment. (Science) An example of tenacity is believing that black cats are bad luck simply because: Lecture 1 Monday, August 31, 2009 10:38 AM Lecture Notes Page 1
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Objectivity: using objectively quantifiable observations Confirmation of findings: repeat experiments to confirm their original results Self-correction: public scrutiny, replication can change views of phenomena Control: of unwanted (extraneous) variables that could influence the results of a research Components of the Scientific Method Gender -- male or female Test Scores -- the #correct Room Temp. -- hot, warm, cold Room Temp. -- degrees Farenheit Examples of variables and their levels (values): Independent Variable (IV): what the experimenter directly manipulates to determine its influence on behavior Dependent Variable (DV): a response or behavior that the experimenter measures To the extent that extraneous variables are controlled the cause-and-effect relationship between the IV and DV become more convincing IV - Teaching method i) DV - Exam scores on MAT ii) EV - Time of day iii) Sing-along math: a) IV - Drug vs. Placebo i) DV - Behavior, normality ii) EV - Different nurses treating patients iii) Manic medication: b) IV - Taking the course or not i) DV - Attitude as measured by questionnaire ii) EV - People who weren't in the class could have taken the class in a previous semester iii) Child development course: c) Exercise in detecting extraneous variables: Extraneous Variable (EV): undesired variables that may operate to influence the dependent variable and thus invalidate an experiment Types of Variables: Variable: any event, situation, behavior, or individual characteristic that varies - that is, has at least two values Experiment: used to determine cause and effect relationships they can influence the dependent variable a.
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