BASIC-INSTRUMENTATION-MEASURING-DEVICES-AND-BASIC-PID-CONTROL

BASIC-INSTRUMENTATION-MEASURING-DEVICES-AND-BASIC-PID-CONTROL

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BASIC INSTRUMENTATION MEASURING DEVICES AND BASIC PID CONTROL
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Science and Reactor Fundamentals & Instrumentation ± Control i CNSC Technical Training Group Revision 1 & January 2003 Table of Contents Section 1 - OBJECTIVES. ................................................................... 3 Section 2 - INSTRUMENTATION EQUIPMENT . ..................... 7 2.0 INTRODUCTION . ........................................................................ 7 2.1 PRESSURE MEASUREMENT . ................................................... 7 2.1.1 General Theory . .................................................................. 7 2.1.2 Pressure Scales. ................................................................... 7 2.1.3 Pressure Measurement . ....................................................... 8 2.1.4 Common Pressure Detectors. .............................................. 9 2.1.5 Differential Pressure Transmitters. ................................... 11 2.1.6 Strain Gauges. ................................................................... 13 2.1.7 Capacitance Capsule. ........................................................ 14 2.1.8 Impact of Operating Environment . ................................... 15 2.1.9 Failures and Abnormalities. .............................................. 16 2.2 FLOW MEASUREMENT. .......................................................... 18 2.2.1 Flow Detectors. ................................................................. 18 2.2.2 Square Root Extractor. ...................................................... 25 2.2.3 Density Compensating Flow Detectors . ........................... 29 2.2.4 Flow Measurement Errors. ................................................ 31 2.3 LEVEL MEASUREMENT . ........................................................ 33 2.3.1 Level Measurement Basics . .............................................. 33 2.3.2 Three Valve Manifold. ..................................................... 34 2.3.3 Open Tank Measurement. ................................................. 36 2.3.4 Closed Tank Measurement . .............................................. 36 2.3.5 Bubbler Level Measurement System. .............................. 42 2.3.6 Effect of Temperature on Level Measurement. ................ 44 2.3.7 Effect of Pressure on Level Measurement. ...................... 47 2.3.8 Level Measurement System Errors. ................................. 47 2.4 TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT. ........................................ 49 2.4.1 Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD). ........................ 49 2.4.2 Thermocouple (T/C) . ....................................................... 52 2.4.3 Thermal Wells. ................................................................. 54 2.4.4 Thermostats. ........................................................................ 55 2.5 NEUTRON FLUX MEASUREMENT . ...................................... 59 2.5.1 Neutron Flux Detection. .................................................... 59 2.5.2 Neutron Detection Methods. ............................................. 60 2.5.3 Start-up (sub-critical) Instrumentation. ............................ 61 2.5.4 Fission neutron detectors . ................................................. 63 2.5.5 Ion chamber neutron detectors. ........................................ 64 2.5.6 In-Core Neutron Detectors. .............................................. 70 2.5.7 Reactor Control at High Power. ........................................ 77 2.5.8 Overlap of Neutron Detection. .......................................... 78 REVIEW QUESTIONS - EQUIPMENT . ............................................ 81 www.PAControl.com
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Science and Reactor Fundamentals & Instrumentation ± Control ii CNSC Technical Training Group Revision 1 & January 2003 Section 3 - CONTROL. .................................................................. 89 3.0 INTRODUCTION . ...................................................................... 89 3.1 BASIC CONTROL PRINCIPLES . ............................................. 89 3.1.1 Feedback Control. ............................................................. 91 3.1.2 Feedforward Control. ....................................................... 91 3.1.3 Summary. .......................................................................... 92 3.2 ON/OFF CONTROL . .................................................................. 93 3.2.1 Summary. .......................................................................... 94 3.3 BASIC PROPORTIONAL CONTROL . ..................................... 95 3.3.1 Summary. ......................................................................... 97 3.4 Proportional Control . .................................................................. 98 3.4.1 Terminology. .................................................................... 98 3.4.2 Practical Proportional Control . ........................................ 98 3.4.3 Summary. ........................................................................ 105 3.5 Reset of Integral Action. ............................................................ 106 3.5.1 Summary. ........................................................................ 109 3.6 RATE OR DERIVATIVE ACTION . ....................................... 110 3.6.1 Summary. ........................................................................ 115 3.7 MULTIPLE CONTROL MODES. ............................................ 116 3.8 TYPICAL NEGATIVE FEEDBACK CONTROL SCHEMES 117 3.8.1 Level Control . ................................................................. 117 3.8.2 Flow Control. .................................................................. 118 3.8.3 Pressure Control. ............................................................ 119 3.8.4 Temperature Control. ...................................................... 120 REVIEW QUESTIONS - CONTROL . ..................................... 122 www.PAControl.com
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Note Science and Reactor Fundamentals & Instrumentation ± Control 3 CNSC Technical Training Group Revision 1 & January 2003 This module covers the following areas pertaining to instrumentation and control. Pressure Flow Level Temperature Neutron Flux Control At the end of training the participants will be able to: Pressure explain the basic working principle of pressure measuring devices, bourdon tube, bellows, diaphragm, capsule, strain gauge, capacitance capsule; explain the basic operation of a differential pressure transmitter; explain the effects of operating environment (pressure, temperature, humidity) on pressure detectors; state the effect of the following failures or abnormalities: over-pressuring a differential pressure cell or bourdon tube;
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BASIC-INSTRUMENTATION-MEASURING-DEVICES-AND-BASIC-PID-CONTROL

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