NOTES - J anuary 19, 2009- Introduction: Why do we start at...

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January 19, 2009- Introduction: Why do we start at 1877? I. Reconstruction a. Many questions are posed by Reconstruction: i. Movement from slavery to political equality? ii. Lack of Republican Party in the South? iii. Reintegrate south quickly? b. Reconstruction Fails i. Republican Corruption rendered governments of the south ii. Fatigue- Many Americans were tired of fixing the south iii. MOST IMPORTANT- Resistances of white Southerners to the government and reconstruction policies 1. Black Codes 2. KKK- Acted in Service of Democrats 3. Agrivation caused by southerners leads to more aggressive Reconstruction c. Election of 1876/ Compromise of 1877 i. Hays v. TIlldan ii. In the south, there is Fraud, political violence, and intimidation at the polls iii. Election results in a tie and goes to the House iv. Secret agreement reached to rule Hays new President as long as reconstruction was ended II. New Set of Issues a. Transformation from rural to industrial society b. 1877 statistics i. 75% of people lived in towns less than 2,000 people ii. 53% of nation’s workforce was farming iii. 86% white iv. 14% foreign born c. Cusp of becoming an urban nation- FAST CHANGE i. In 4 decades, America became home of the largest Polish, Irish and German cities in the world. ii. Emergence of corporations, unions, etc. III. Centennial Celebration (1876)
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a. America was advertizing its self image with 30,000 exhibits b. Hosted at largest building in world at the time c. Centerpiece was Corilous Steam Engine which ran part of the exhibit d. THIS IS THE FUTURE e. Showed confidence, power, and prosperity but also showed gentility and manners: Orderly Progress f. Was closed on Sundays g. Located in a pristine park and no blacks worked in the exhibit h. Only showed natives as anthropology, even though little Big Horn happens during the exhibit i. Was located inside of Centennial City, a shanty slum with a mile long strip full of venders, excitement, prostitutes, etc. j. This contrasted the Exhibit (Gentility) vs. the City (Fun, excitement) which showed the future of America. IV. Great Uprising (Summer 1877) a. Because of the Stage of Consolidation (too many railroads) production, jobs, and wages were cut. For example, the Eastern Railroad cut wages 10% b. Martinsburg, WV i. Stop trains from running, block tracks, trains can’t run ii. Government calls local militia who have same culture and background as strikers and they refuse to stop them. iii. Strike begins to spread east to west. c. Other Cities i. Baltimore- 10 are killed in riots ii. Pittsburg- Steel and Railroad workers control city for 48 hours iii. Chicago iv. St. Louis- General Strike- All industry goes on strike for over a week d. Hays calls for federal troops, out of south where they were fighting the Civil War, to break up the strike. This is the first time the government had intervened on the behalf of industry, but most certainly not the last with the upcoming issues of Trusts and Monopolies e. Legacy of Strike i. 4-10 million dollars in damage and over 100 people killed
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ii. Gave hope to lower class workers
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This note was uploaded on 09/28/2009 for the course HIST 1531 taught by Professor Chang, d during the Spring '08 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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NOTES - J anuary 19, 2009- Introduction: Why do we start at...

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