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Unformatted text preview: Geology-108 Lecture 1 LECTURE 1 •the earth • how an active planet affects us: earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides, floods • how we affect the planet: Global warming, acrid rain, ozone hole, groundwater pollution/depletion, depletion of mineral and energy resources and soils • an evolving planet- has always been undergoing change. 2 mil years ago it entered an ice age, now warming for 10,000 years but greatly accelerated in the last century • live circling a young star, our solar system, part of a galaxy , part of a universe of which the # of galaxies number in the billions • .04% of earths time is when we have been here • ice age • origin of the universe, the earth and life • (andromeda Galaxy [closest galaxy] 2.5 million light years away) • Melvin Slipher, 1913 • discovered 12 galaxies beyond the Milkey Way • all showed the “red shift”, a doppler effect indicating all were speeding away • Einstein vs. de Sitter • Einstein- 1917, theory of Relativity, an equation with a beginning? problem section omitted • William de Sitter- 1917, Corrects Einstein’s model, a beginning of time? • Mt. Wilson Obseravtory • Edwin Hubble, 1927, above Pasadena at Mr. Wilson, used telescope to confirm Slipher’s observation to include 39 galaxies, all moving away from each other and with the most distant at the greatest velocity. The Big Bang Theory! • the galaxies that were the furthest away, moving fastest • trajectories closing in on each other, take them back to their point of origin, come back to the same place and same time. (BBTheory) • Hubble Telescope Today- found billions of galaxies. Telescope 14 billion light years away. • The Big Bang Theory- (blackboard for slide) • Distribution of Matter in the Universe • Uneven... al matter on edges of curved surfaces (bubbles?) w/ great voids between- all expanding.. all very uneven mass • (see blackboard) • Gas Cloud, a future star (Nebula) some day will come together, become a star • Our Galaxy- the Milky Way (hundred bil stars) • we are 30,000 light years from the center, a dark hole • Birth of a star (hydrogen and helium fuse.. 2 hydrogens (fusion) to make helium.. and another hydrogen to make lithium) releases tremendous amounts of energy, to make hydrogen bomb- star • Storms of the Sun (fueled by hydrogen) • origin of a solar system- nebular model • Nebular cloud • Gravitational attraction • star formation (99.9% of mass collapsed to form sun *see BLACKBOARD) • planetary formation • • The solar system • • BLACKBOARD -Current planetary configuration- chemistry of planets related to distance from sun • • The Outer Planets • Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, are called gas giants. they are large worlds, much less dense than the inner planets, and they are composed mostly of gas and ices BB • The outer planets- all low density, mostly non-metal BB • Jupiter’s Io (has a volcano) physically alive • Jupiter’s moon Ganymede (could have life) •...
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This note was uploaded on 09/28/2009 for the course GEOL 108 taught by Professor Anderson during the Fall '06 term at USC.
- Fall '06