English 221 Study Guide.docx - English 221 Study Guide 1...

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English 221 Study Guide 1. Importance of Italy to the English Renaissance Brought art to England — England during the middle ages had nothing but with the help of the Tudor dynasty who accepted change. England advanced in art, literature, and architecture. Another possible answer The renaissance began in Italy in 1300's due to their diverse governing system, prime location to trade, rich economy, and their location near the heart of roman culture (allowed humanism to develop) 2. Catherine of Aragon Married Henry VIII in 1509, was his first wife and they were married for 20 years. She failed to produce a male heir. Henry VIII broke away from the Catholic Church to divorce her 3. Queen Elizabeth’s speech at Tilbury A message to her army at Tilbury on the eve of the Spanish Armada in 1588 declared that she would never fail to trust the loyalty of faithful and loving subjects.displayed her strategic appropriation of traditionally masculine qualities and her great personal courage 4. Foxe’s Book of Martyrs Written by John Foxe Early years of Elizabethan age, describes the torture and execution of Protestants. vividly illustrated with woodcuts and 4 times the length of the Bible. 5. Wars of the Roses 1455-1485, civil war to determine the king of England, It was Henry Tudor, who becomes King Henry VII ( this answer is easier to remember 6. Chronological list (no dates needed) of the Tudor monarchs
Henry VII (1485 – 1509) Henry VIII (1509–1547) Edward VI (1547–1553) Lady Jane Grey (1553) Mary I (1553 – 1558) Elizabeth I (1558 – 1603) 7. Importance of 1517, 1564, 1588, 1603 1517- Protestant Reformation. Martin Luther posted his 95 theses to the church 1564- Shakespeare was born 1588- Battle of Gravelines- Spanish Armada 1603- Elizabeth I’s reign ended and therefore so did the Tudor Monarchy 8. “The lion and the fox” Written by machiavelli and he says a leader has to have the wit of the fox and the strength of the lion . A fox is a cunning animal that avoids traps, but alone, it cannot fend off a pack of wolves. A lion , on the other hand, is a brave, strong animal but without the wit of the fox , it cannot outsmart its enemies. 9. “Defender of the Faith” Given to Henry VIII by Pope Leo X after Henry defended the Roman Catholic church after Martin Luther’s “95 theses” was posted on the door of the church criticizing the faith and their practice. The pamphlet he shared was titled “Declaration of the Seven Sacraments Against Martin Luther” to negate his viewpoints and keep the public involved with the Roman Catholic Church 10.

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