APCh4Solutions

APCh4Solutions - Chapter 4 Types of Chemical Reactions and...

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Chapter 4 Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry
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4.1 Water, the Common Solvent Oxygen's electronegativity is high (3.5) and hydrogen's is low (2.1) It is this polarity that gives water its great ability to dissolve compounds
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Hydration Positive ends (hydrogen) of water are attracted to the negatively charged anions Negative ends (oxygen) of water are attracted to the positively charged cations
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Solubility “Like dissolves Like” Polar and ionic compounds dissolve in polar solvents like water Nonpolar compounds like fats dissolve in nonpolar solvents
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4.2 The Nature of Aqueous Solutions and Weak Electrolytes Solute = gets dissolved Solvent= does the dissolving Solution= solvent + solute
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An electrolyte is a substance that, when dissolved in water, results in a solution that can conduct electricity. A nonelectrolyte is a substance that, when dissolved, results in a solution that does not conduct electricity. - alcohols and sugars nonelectrolyte weak electrolyte strong electrolyte
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Strong Electrolytes Completely ionize when dissolved in water a. Ionic compounds b. Strong acids c. Strong bases
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Weak Electrolytes Slightly ionize in solution Weak acids (organic acids: acetic, citric, butyric, malic) Weak bases (ammonia)
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14.3 Composition of Solutions The concentration of a solution is the amount of solute present in a given quantity of solvent or solution. M = molarity = moles of solute liters of solution What mass of KI is required to make 500. mL of a 2.80 M KI solution? volume KI moles KI grams KI M KI KI 500. mL = 232 g KI 166 g KI 1 mol KI x 2.80 mol KI 1 L soln x 1 L 1000 mL x
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4.5
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is the procedure for preparing a less concentrated solution from a more concentrated solution. Dilution
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APCh4Solutions - Chapter 4 Types of Chemical Reactions and...

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