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AP Chapter 11

# AP Chapter 11 - Solutions Occur in all phases The solvent...

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1 Page 1 Solutions Occur in all phases rhombus6 The solvent does the dissolving. rhombus6 The solute is dissolved. rhombus6 There are examples of all types of solvents dissolving all types of solvent. rhombus6 We will focus on aqueous solutions. Ways of Measuring rhombus6 Molarity = moles of solute Liters of solute rhombus6 % mass = Mass of solute x 100 Mass of solution rhombus6 Mole fraction of component A χ A = N A N A + N B rhombus6 Molality = moles of solute Kilograms of solvent rhombus6 Molality is abbreviated m rhombus6 Normality - read but don’t focus on it. rhombus6 It is molarity x number of active pieces Ways of Measuring Energy of Making Solutions rhombus6 Heat of solution ( H soln ) is the energy change for making a solution. rhombus6 Most easily understood if broken into steps. rhombus6 1.Break apart solvent rhombus6 2.Break apart solute rhombus6 3. Mixing solvent and solute 1. Break apart Solvent rhombus6 Have to overcome attractive forces. H 1 >0 2. Break apart Solute. rhombus6 Have to overcome attractive forces. H 2 >0

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2 Page 2 3. Mixing solvent and solute rhombus6 H 3 depends on what you are mixing. rhombus6 If molecules can attract each other H 3 is large and negative. rhombus6 Molecules can’t attract- H 3 is small and negative. rhombus6 This explains the rule “Like dissolves Like” E n e r g y Reactants Solution H 1 H 2 H 3 Solvent Solute and Solvent rhombus6 Size of H 3 helps determine whether a solution will form H 3 Solution Types of Solvent and solutes rhombus6 If H soln is small and positive, a solution will still form because of entropy. rhombus6 There are many more ways for them to become mixed than there is for them to stay separate. Structure and Solubility rhombus6 Water soluble molecules must have dipole moments -polar bonds. rhombus6 To be soluble in nonpolar solvents the molecules must be non polar. rhombus6 Read Vitamin A - Vitamin C discussion pg. 509 Soap P O - CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 O - O - Soap rhombus6 Hydrophobic non- polar end P O - CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 O - O -
3 Page 3 Soap rhombus6 Hydrophilic polar end P O - CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 O - O - P O - CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH

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