AP Chapter 11 - Solutions Occur in all phases The solvent...

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1 Page 1 Solutions Occur in all phases r The solvent does the dissolving. r The solute is dissolved. r There are examples of all types of solvents dissolving all types of solvent. r We will focus on aqueous solutions. Ways of Measuring r Molarity = moles of solute Liters of solute r % mass = Mass of solute x 100 Mass of solution r Mole fraction of component A χ A = N A N A + N B r Molality = moles of solute Kilograms of solvent r Molality is abbreviated m r Normality - read but don’t focus on it. r It is molarity x number of active pieces Ways of Measuring Energy of Making Solutions r Heat of solution ( H soln ) is the energy change for making a solution. r Most easily understood if broken into steps. r 1.Break apart solvent r 2.Break apart solute r 3. Mixing solvent and solute 1. Break apart Solvent r Have to overcome attractive forces. H 1 >0 2. Break apart Solute. r Have to overcome attractive forces. H 2 >0
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2 Page 2 3. Mixing solvent and solute r H 3 depends on what you are mixing. r If molecules can attract each other H 3 is large and negative. r Molecules can’t attract- H 3 is small and negative. r This explains the rule “Like dissolves Like” E n e r g y Reactants Solution H 1 H 2 H 3 Solvent Solute and Solvent r Size of H 3 helps determine whether a solution will form H 3 Solution Types of Solvent and solutes r If H soln is small and positive, a solution will still form because of entropy. r There are many more ways for them to become mixed than there is for them to stay separate. Structure and Solubility r Water soluble molecules must have dipole moments -polar bonds. r To be soluble in nonpolar solvents the molecules must be non polar. r Read Vitamin A - Vitamin C discussion pg. 509 Soap P O - CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 O - O - Soap r Hydrophobic non- polar end P O - CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 O - O -
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3 Page 3 Soap r Hydrophilic polar end P O - CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH
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This note was uploaded on 09/28/2009 for the course CHEM 102 taught by Professor Freeman during the Spring '08 term at South Carolina.

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AP Chapter 11 - Solutions Occur in all phases The solvent...

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