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AP Chapter 9 - Molecular Orbitals Chapter 9 Orbitals and...

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1 1 Chapter 9 Orbitals and Covalent Bond 2 Molecular Orbitals square6 The overlap of atomic orbitals from separate atoms makes molecular orbitals square6 Each molecular orbital has room for two electrons square6 Two types of MO –Sigma ( σ ) between atoms –Pi ( π ) above and below atoms 3 Sigma bonding orbitals square6 From s orbitals on separate atoms + + s orbital s orbital + + + + Sigma bonding molecular orbital 4 Sigma bonding orbitals square6 From p orbitals on separate atoms p orbital p orbital Sigma bonding molecular orbital 5 Pi bonding orbitals square6 p orbitals on separate atoms Pi bonding molecular orbital 6 Sigma and pi bonds square6 All single bonds are sigma bonds square6 A double bond is one sigma and one pi bond square6 A triple bond is one sigma and two pi bonds.
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2 7 Atomic Orbitals Don’t Work square6 to explain molecular geometry. square6 In methane, CH 4 , the shape is tetrahedral. square6 The valence electrons of carbon should be two in s, and two in p. square6 the p orbitals would have to be at right angles. square6 The atomic orbitals change when making a molecule 8 Hybridization square6 We blend the s and p orbitals of the valence electrons and end up with the tetrahedral geometry. square6 We combine one s orbital and 3 p orbitals. square6 sp 3 hybridization has tetrahedral geometry. 9 10 11 In terms of energy Energy 2p 2s Hybridization sp 3 12 How we get to hybridization square6 We know the geometry from experiment. square6 We know the orbitals of the atom square6 hybridizing atomic orbitals can explain the geometry. square6 So if the geometry requires a tetrahedral shape, it is sp 3 hybridized square6 This includes bent and trigonal pyramidal molecules because one of the sp 3 lobes holds the lone pair.
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3 13 sp 2 hybridization square6 C 2 H 4 square6 Double bond acts as one pair. square6 trigonal planar square6 Have to end up with three blended orbitals.
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