AP Chapter 9 - 1 1 Chapter 9 Orbitals and Covalent Bond 2...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 1 Chapter 9 Orbitals and Covalent Bond 2 Molecular Orbitals s The overlap of atomic orbitals from separate atoms makes molecular orbitals s Each molecular orbital has room for two electrons s Two types of MO Sigma ( ) between atoms Pi ( ) above and below atoms 3 Sigma bonding orbitals s From s orbitals on separate atoms + + s orbital s orbital + + + + Sigma bonding molecular orbital 4 Sigma bonding orbitals s From p orbitals on separate atoms p orbital p orbital Sigma bonding molecular orbital 5 Pi bonding orbitals s p orbitals on separate atoms Pi bonding molecular orbital 6 Sigma and pi bonds s All single bonds are sigma bonds s A double bond is one sigma and one pi bond s A triple bond is one sigma and two pi bonds. 2 7 Atomic Orbitals Dont Work s to explain molecular geometry. s In methane, CH 4 , the shape is tetrahedral. s The valence electrons of carbon should be two in s, and two in p. s the p orbitals would have to be at right angles. s The atomic orbitals change when making a molecule 8 Hybridization s We blend the s and p orbitals of the valence electrons and end up with the tetrahedral geometry. s We combine one s orbital and 3 p orbitals. s sp 3 hybridization has tetrahedral geometry. 9 10 11 In terms of energy Energy 2p 2s Hybridization sp 3 12 How we get to hybridization s We know the geometry from experiment. s We know the orbitals of the atom s hybridizing atomic orbitals can explain the geometry. s So if the geometry requires a tetrahedral shape, it is sp 3 hybridized s This includes bent and trigonal pyramidal molecules because one of the sp 3 lobes holds the lone pair. 3 13 sp 2 hybridization s C 2 H 4 s Double bond acts as one pair....
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This note was uploaded on 09/28/2009 for the course CHEM 102 taught by Professor Freeman during the Spring '08 term at South Carolina.

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AP Chapter 9 - 1 1 Chapter 9 Orbitals and Covalent Bond 2...

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