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AP Chapter 4 - Parts of Solutions Solution homogeneous...

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1 1 Chapter 4 Aqueous solutions Types of reactions 2 Parts of Solutions circle6 Solution- homogeneous mixture. circle6 Solute- what gets dissolved. circle6 Solvent- what does the dissolving. circle6 Soluble- Can be dissolved. circle6 Miscible- liquids dissolve in each other. 3 Aqueous solutions circle6 Dissolved in water. circle6 Water is a good solvent because the molecules are polar. circle6 The oxygen atoms have a partial negative charge. circle6 The hydrogen atoms have a partial positive charge. circle6 The angle is 105ºC. 4 Hydration circle6 The process of breaking the ions of salts apart. circle6 Ions have charges and are attracted to the opposite charges on the water molecules. 5 How Ionic solids dissolve H H H H H Click here for Animation 6 Solubility circle6 How much of a substance will dissolve in a given amount of water. circle6 Usually g/100 mL circle6 Varies greatly, but if they do dissolve the ions are separated, circle6 and they can move around. circle6 Water can also dissolve non-ionic compounds if they have polar bonds.
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2 7 Electrolytes circle6 Electricity is moving charges. circle6 The ions that are dissolved can move. circle6 Solutions of ionic compounds can conduct electricity. circle6 Electrolytes. circle6 Solutions are classified three ways. 8 Types of solutions circle6 Strong electrolytes- completely dissociate (fall apart into ions). –Many ions- Conduct well. circle6 Weak electrolytes- Partially fall apart into ions. –Few ions -Conduct electricity slightly. circle6 Non-electrolytes- Don’t fall apart. –No ions- Don’t conduct. 9 Types of solutions circle6 Acids- form H + ions when dissolved. circle6 Strong acids fall apart completely. circle6 many ions circle6 Memorize this list H 2 SO 4 HNO 3 HCl HBr HI HClO 4 circle6 Weak acids- don’ dissociate completely. circle6 Bases - form OH - ions when dissolved. circle6 Strong bases- many ions. circle6 KOH NaOH 10 Measuring Solutions circle6 Concentration- how much is dissolved. circle6 Molarity = Moles of solute Liters of solution circle6 abbreviated M circle6 1 M = 1 mol solute / 1 liter solution circle6 Calculate the molarity of a solution with 34.6 g of NaCl dissolved in 125 mL of solution. 11 Molarity circle6 How many grams of HCl would be required to make 50.0 mL of a 2.7 M solution? circle6 What would the concentration be if you used 27g of CaCl 2 to make 500. mL of solution? circle6 What is the concentration of each ion? 12 Molarity circle6 Calculate the concentration of a solution made by dissolving 45.6 g of Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 to 475 mL. circle6 What is the concentration of each ion?
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3 13 Making solutions circle6 Describe how to make 100.0 mL of a 1.0 M K 2 Cr 2 O 4 solution.
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