AP Chapter 4 - Parts of Solutions Solution- homogeneous...

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1 1 Chapter 4 Aqueous solutions Types of reactions 2 Parts of Solutions c Solution- homogeneous mixture. c Solute- what gets dissolved. c Solvent- what does the dissolving. c Soluble- Can be dissolved. c Miscible- liquids dissolve in each other. 3 Aqueous solutions c Dissolved in water. c Water is a good solvent because the molecules are polar. c The oxygen atoms have a partial negative charge. c The hydrogen atoms have a partial positive charge. c The angle is 105ºC. 4 Hydration c The process of breaking the ions of salts apart. c Ions have charges and are attracted to the opposite charges on the water molecules. 5 How Ionic solids dissolve H H H Click here for Animation 6 Solubility c How much of a substance will dissolve in a given amount of water. c Usually g/100 mL c Varies greatly, but if they do dissolve the ions are separated, c and they can move around. c Water can also dissolve non-ionic compounds if they have polar bonds.
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2 7 Electrolytes c Electricity is moving charges. c The ions that are dissolved can move. c Solutions of ionic compounds can conduct electricity. c Electrolytes. c Solutions are classified three ways. 8 Types of solutions c Strong electrolytes- completely dissociate (fall apart into ions). –Many ions- Conduct well. c Weak electrolytes- Partially fall apart into ions. –Few ions -Conduct electricity slightly. c Non-electrolytes- Don’t fall apart. –No ions- Don’t conduct. 9 Types of solutions c Acids- form H + ions when dissolved. c Strong acids fall apart completely. c many ions c Memorize this list H 2 SO 4 HNO 3 HCl HBr HI HClO 4 c Weak acids- don’ dissociate completely. c Bases - form OH - ions when dissolved. c Strong bases- many ions. c KOH NaOH 10 Measuring Solutions c Concentration- how much is dissolved. c Molarity = Moles of solute Liters of solution c abbreviated M c 1 M = 1 mol solute / 1 liter solution c Calculate the molarity of a solution with 34.6 g of NaCl dissolved in 125 mL of solution. 11 Molarity c How many grams of HCl would be required to make 50.0 mL of a 2.7 M solution? c What would the concentration be if you used 27g of CaCl 2 to make 500. mL of solution? c What is the concentration of each ion? 12 Molarity c Calculate the concentration of a solution made by dissolving 45.6 g of Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 to 475 mL. c What is the concentration of each ion?
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3 13 Making solutions c Describe how to make 100.0 mL of a 1.0 M K 2 Cr 2 O 4 solution. c
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This note was uploaded on 09/28/2009 for the course CHEM 102 taught by Professor Freeman during the Spring '08 term at South Carolina.

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AP Chapter 4 - Parts of Solutions Solution- homogeneous...

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