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Unformatted text preview: 1 AP Chemistry Chapter 22 - Organic Chemistry 22.1 Alkanes: Saturated Hydrocarbons A. Straight-chain Hydrocarbons 1. Straight-chain alkanes have the formula C n H 2n+2 2. Carbons are sp 3 hybridized The First 10 Alkanes # of Carbons Name Formula (C n H 2n+2 ) 1 Methane CH 4 2 Ethane C 2 H 6 3 Propane C 3 H 8 4 Butane C 4 H 10 5 Pentane C 5 H 12 6 Hexane C 6 H 14 7 Heptane C 7 H 16 8 Octane C 8 H 18 9 Nonane C 9 H 20 10 Decane C 10 H 22 B. Structural Isomers 1. Same formula, but the atoms are bonded together in a different order 2. Different bonding order results in different properties C 4 H 10 Butane C 4 H 10 2-methylpropane C. Rules for Naming Alkanes (Nomenclature) 1. For a branched hydrocarbon, the longest continuous chain of carbon atoms gives the root name for the hydrocarbon 2. When alkane groups appear as substituents, they are named by dropping the -ane and adding -yl . 3. The positions of substituent groups are specified by numbering the longest chain of carbon atoms sequentially, starting at the end closest to the branching. 4. The location and name of each substituent are followed by the root alkane name. The substituents are listed in alphabetical order (irrespective of any name....
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This note was uploaded on 09/28/2009 for the course CHEM 102 taught by Professor Freeman during the Spring '08 term at South Carolina.
- Spring '08
- Organic chemistry