chap14notes - Chapter 14 - Acids and Bases 14.1 The Nature...

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1 Chapter 14 - Acids and Bases 14.1 The Nature of Acids and Bases A. Arrhenius Model 1. Acids produce hydrogen ions in aqueous solutions 2. Bases produce hydroxide ions in aqueous solutions B. Bronsted-Lowry Model 1. Acids are proton donors 2. Bases are proton acceptors 3. H 3 O + is called the hydronium ion C. Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs 1. A conjugate base is what remains after an acid has donated a proton a. Cl - is the conjugate base of HCl 2. A conjugate acid is what is formed when a base accepts a proton base acid acid base 3. HCl is a stronger base than H 3 O + (H + ) so the equilibrium lies far to the right D. Acid Dissociation Constant 1. ] [ ] ][ [ HCl Cl H K a - + = a. water is not included because, in dilute solution, the concentration of water is high, and changes so little it is assumed to be constant b. The dissociation constant is the same as for the dissociation equation here: HCl(aq) H + (aq) + Cl - (aq) c. K a is used only for this type of expression d. For strong acids such as HCl, the equilibrium lies so far to the right that [HCl] cannot be measured accurately, and an accurate calculation of K a is not possible 14.2 Acid Strength A. Strong Acids 1. Acids for which the equilibrium lies far to the right a. Strong acids yield weak conjugate bases 2. Common strong acids a. sulfuric, hydrochloric, nitric, perchloric
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2 B. Weak Acids 1. Acids for which the equilibrium lies far to the left a. Weak acids yield relatively strong conjugate bases C. Acid Terminology 1. Monoprotic - one acidic proton 2. Diprotic - two acidic protons 3. Triprotic - three acidic protons 4. Oxyacids - acids in which the acidic proton is attached to an oxygen atom 5. Organic acids - acids containing the mildly acidic carboxyl group a. Generally weak acids b. Equilibrium lies far to the left D. Water as an Acid and a Base 1. Water can act as an acid or as a base a. Autoionization of water (Self-ionization) 2. Ion-product constant, K w (dissociation constant) a. At 25 ° C, [H + ] = [OH - ] = 1.0 x 10 -7 b. K w = [H + ][OH - ] = (1.0 x 10 -7 mol/L)( 1.0 x 10 -7 mol/L) (1) K w = 1.0 x 10 -14 mol 2 /L 2 (units often dropped) 3. Solution characteristics a. Neutral solution, [H + ] = [OH - ] = 1.0 x 10 -7 b. Acid solution, [H + ] > [OH
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This note was uploaded on 09/28/2009 for the course CHEM 102 taught by Professor Freeman during the Spring '08 term at South Carolina.

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chap14notes - Chapter 14 - Acids and Bases 14.1 The Nature...

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