chap11notes - Chapter 11 Properties of Solutions 11.1...

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1 B A A A n n n x componentA of fraction Mole + = = Chapter 11 – Properties of Solutions 11.1 Solution Composition A. Molarity 1. solution of liters solute moles M Molarity = ) ( B. Mass Percent 1. 100 × = solution of mass solute of mass percent Mass C. Mole Fraction 1. D. Molality 1. solvent of ram ki solute of moles Molality log = E. Normality 1. solution of liter s equivalent Normality = 2. Equivalents of acids and bases a. Mass that donates or accepts a mole of protons 3. Equivalents of oxidizing and reducing agents a. Mass that provides or accepts a mole of electrons 11.2 The Energies of Solution Formation A. “Like Dissolves Like” 1. Polar molecules and ionic compounds tend to dissolve in polar solvents 2. Nonpolar molecules dissolve in nonpolar compounds B. Steps of Solution Formation 1. Breaking up the solute into individual components (expanding the solute) a. Endothermic 2. Overcoming intermolecular forces in the solvent to make room for the solute (expanding the solvent) a. Endothermic 3. Allowing the solute and solvent to interact to form the solution a. Often exothermic C. Enthalpy (Heat) of Solution 1. 3 2 1 ' step step step n sol H H H H + + = 1. H sol’n may have a positive sign or a negative sign 3. Enthalpy (Heat) of Hydration, H hyd a. Include H of step 2 and step 3
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2 D. Factors Favoring the Solution Process 1. Negative value for H sol’n 2. Increase in entropy 3. For positive values of H sol’n it is the increase in entropy that outweighs the increase in energy and causes the solution process of occur 11.3 Factors Affecting Solubility A. Structure Effects 1. Polar (hydrophilic) dissolves in polar a. Water soluble vitamins 2. Nonpolar (hydrophobic) in nonpolar a. Fat soluble vitamins
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This note was uploaded on 09/28/2009 for the course CHEM 102 taught by Professor Freeman during the Spring '08 term at South Carolina.

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chap11notes - Chapter 11 Properties of Solutions 11.1...

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