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Unformatted text preview: 1 Chapter 9 - Covalent Bonding: Orbitals 9.1 Hybridization and the Localized Electron Model A. Hybridization 1. The mixing of two or more atomic orbitals of similar energies on the same atom to produce new orbitals of equal energies B. Hybrid Orbitals 1. Orbitals of equal energy produced by the combination of two or more orbitals on the same atom C. Evidence for hybridization of carbon - Methane and sp 3 1. Four bonds of equal length and strength Carbon's isolated configuration Carbon's hybridized configuration 2. Four effective pairs of electrons surround the carbon 3. &quot;Whenever a set of equivalent tetrahedral atomic orbitals is required by an atom, this model assumes that the atom adopts a set of sp 3 orbitals; the atom becomes hybridized&quot; D. sp 2 hybridization 1. Trigonal planar structure, 120 angle, in ethene (ethylene) rules out sp 3 hybridization 2. sp 2 hybridization creates 3 identical orbitals of intermediate energy and length and leaves one unhybridized p orbital 3. 3 effective pairs of electrons surround the carbon (double bond treated as one effective pair) 2 4. Sigma bonds ( bond) a. Bond in which the electron pair is shared in an area centered on a line running between the atoms b. Lobes of bonding orbital point toward each other c. All bonds in methane are sigma bonds 5. Pi bonds ( bonds) a. Electron pair above and below the bond b. Created by overlapping of nonhybridized 2p orbitals on each...
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