chap05notes - AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 5 - Gases 5.1...

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AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 5 - Gases 5.1 Pressure A. Properties of gases 1. Gases uniformly fill any container 2. Gases are easily compressed 3. Gases mix completely with any other gas 4. Gases exert pressure on their surroundings a. Pressure = force/area B. Measuring barometric pressure 1. The barometer a. Inventor - Evangelista Torricelli (1643) 2. Units a. mm Hg (torr) (1) 760 torr = Standard pressure b. newtons/meter 2 = pascal (Pa) (1) 101,325 Pa = Standard pressure c. atmospheres (1) 1 atmosphere = Standard pressure 5.2 The Gas Laws of Boyle, Charles, and Avogadro A. Boyle's Law (Robert Boyle, 1627 - 1691) 1. the product of pressure times volume is a constant, provided the temperature remains the same k PV = a. P is inversely related to V b. The graph of P versus V is hyperbolic c. Volume increases linearly as the pressure decreases ( 1/P ) 2. At constant temperature, Boyle's law can be used to find a new volumes or a new pressure a. P 1 V 1 = k = P 2 V 2 V P V P 2 2 1 1 = or V V P P 1 2 2 1 = 3. Boyle's law works best at low pressures 4. Gases that obey Boyle's law are called Ideal gases B. Charles' Law (Jacques Charles, 1746 - 1823) 1. The volume of a gas increase linearly with temperature provided the pressure remains constant a. V = bT V/T = b (1) V 1 /T 1 = b = V 2 /T 2 T V T V 2 2 1 1 = or T T V V 2 1 2 1 =
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b. Temperature must be measured in degrees Kelvin (1) K = ° C + 273 (2) 0 K is "absolute zero" C. Avogadro's Law (Amedeo Avogadro, 1811) 1. For a gas at constant temperature and pressure, the volume is directly proportional to the number of moles, n a. V = an V/n = a (1) V 1 /n 1 = a = V 2 /n 2 n V n V 2 2 1 1 = 5.3 The Ideal Gas Law A. Derivation from existing laws 1. V = k/P V = bT V = an 2. Constants k, b, a are combined into universal gas constant, R P nRT V = or nRT PV = mol K atm L R = 0826 . 0 B. Limitations of the Ideal Gas Law
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This note was uploaded on 09/28/2009 for the course CHEM 102 taught by Professor Freeman during the Spring '08 term at South Carolina.

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chap05notes - AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 5 - Gases 5.1...

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