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chap04notes - AP Chemistry A Allan Chapter 4 Notes Types of...

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AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 4 Notes - Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Chemistry 4.1 Water, the Common Solvent A. Structure of water 1. Oxygen's electronegativity is high (3.5) and hydrogen's is low (2.1) 2. Water is a bent molecule 3. Water is a polar molecule B. Hydration of Ionic Solute Molecules 1. Positive ions attracted to the oxygen end of water 2. Negative ions attracted to the hydrogen end of water C. Hydration of Polar Solute Molecules 1. Negative end of polar solute molecules are attracted to water's hydrogen 2. Positive end of polar solute molecules are attracted to water's oxygen D. "Like Dissolves Like" 1. Polar and ionic compounds dissolve in polar solvents like water 2. Nonpolar compounds like fats dissolve in nonpolar solvents like ____?_____ 4.2 The Nature of Aqueous Solutions: Strong and Weak Electrolytes A. Definition of Electrolytes 1. A substance that when dissolved in water produces a solution that can conduct an electric current B. Strong electrolytes conduct current very efficiently 1. Completely ionized when dissolved in water a. Ionic compounds b. Strong acids (HNO 3 ( aq ), H 2 SO 4 ( aq ), HCl( aq )) c. Strong bases (KOH NaOH) C. Weak electrolytes conduct only a small current 1. Slightly ionized in solution a. Weak acids (organic acids - acetic, citric, butyric, malic) b. Weak bases (ammonia) D. Nonelectrolytes conduct no current 1. No ions present in solution a. alcohols, sugars 4.3 The Composition of Solutions A. Molarity 1. Moles of solute per liter of solution M = molarity = moles of solute/liters of solution
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B. Concentration of Ions in Solution 1. Ionic compounds dissociate in solution, multiplying the molarity by the number of ions present C. Moles from Concentration 1. Liters of solution x molarity = moles of solute D. Solutions of Known Concentration 1. Standard solution - a solution whose concentration is accurately known 2. Preparation of Standard solutions How much x How strong x What does it weigh?
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