chap02notes - AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 2 Notes -...

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AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 2 Notes - Atoms, Molecules and Ions 2.1 The Early History Refer to the Chemistry History Timeline for this chapter 2.2 Fundamental Chemical Laws A. Law of Conservation of Mass 1. "Mass is neither created nor destroyed" 2. Translation: In ordinary chemical reactions, the total mass of the reactants is equal to the total mass of the products B. Law of Definite Proportion 1. "A given compound always contains the same proportions of elements by mass" 2. Translation: Compounds have an unchanging chemical formula C. Law of Multiple Proportions 1. "When two elements form a series of compounds, the ratios of the masses of the second element that combine with one gram of the first element can always be reduced to small whole numbers 2. Translation: Sometimes two elements can come together in more than one way, forming compounds with similar, though not identical formulas 2.3 Dalton's Atomic Theory A. Atomic Theory 1. Each element is made up of tiny particles called atoms 2. The atoms of a given element are identical 3. Chemical compounds are formed when atoms combine with each other. A given compound always has the same relative numbers and types of atoms 4. Chemical reactions involve reorganizations of the atoms. The atoms themselves are not changed in a chemical reaction B. Avogadro's Hypothesis 1. At the same conditions of temperature and pressure, equal volumes of different gases contain the same number of particles. 2.4 Early Experiments to Characterize the Atom
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This note was uploaded on 09/28/2009 for the course CHEM 102 taught by Professor Freeman during the Spring '08 term at South Carolina.

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chap02notes - AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 2 Notes -...

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