chap01notes - AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 1 Notes -...

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1 AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 1 Notes - Chemical Foundations 1.1 Chemistry: An Overview A. Reaction of hydrogen and oxygen 1. Two molecules of hydrogen react with one molecule of oxygen to form two molecules of water 2H 2 + O 2 2H 2 O 2. Decomposition of water 2H 2 O 2H 2 + O 2 B. Problem Solving in Chemistry (and life) 1. Making observations 2. Making a prediction 3. Do experiments to test the prediction 1.2 The Scientific Method A. General Framework 1. Making observations a. Quantitative ( measurement) b. Qualitative (color, phase, shape, etc) 2. Making a prediction 3. Do experiments to test the prediction B. Vocabulary 1. Observation a. Something that is witnessed and can be recorded 2. Theory (Model) a. Tested hypotheses that explains WHY nature behaves in a certain way b. Theories change as more information becomes available 3. Natural Law a. A summary of observed, measurable behavior 1.3 Units of Measurement A. Measurements 1. Number and Scale (units) are both essential "The number without the units is worthless!" B. SI system Important SI Units for Chemistry Mass kilogram kg Length meter m Time second s Temperature Kelvin K Amount of Substance mole mol Volume liter L
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2 C. SI Prefixes mega M 1,000,000 10 6 nano n 0.000000001 10 -9 kilo k 1,000 10 3 micro ˛ 0.000001 10 -6 hecto h 100 10 2 milli m 0.001 10 -3 deka da 10 10 1 centi c 0.01 10 -2 deci n 0.1 10 -1 1.4 Uncertainty in Measurement A. Recording Measurements (Significant figures) 1. Record all digits that are certain
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chap01notes - AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 1 Notes -...

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