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F08pages1-33 - Robert (Bob) Fischer Department of Plant &...

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Robert (Bob) Fischer • Department of Plant & Microbial Biology • Lab is 231 Koshland Hall • Of±ce Hours, 2084 VLSB MWF (9-10 AM) • Email: r±[email protected] • Lecture ±le (including reading assignments, question sets, ±lled in drawings) is posted on the Bio 1A web site (http://mcb.berkeley.edu/courses/bio1a/Fall2008/). Genetics and Molecular Biology - Tools to study the information that creates and sustains life Deoxyribonucleic Acid Course Outline Genetics • inheritance • meiosis and gametes • transmission of genes and traits Molecular Biology • DNA • RNA • Protein How Genetic Information is Used • by viruses and bacteria • by organisms (e.g., us) that make different kinds of cells and organs. • by species to change over time. 1
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Please study, do question sets, come to class and your discussion Section. Chapter 12 - The Cell Cycle Outline of lecture • How is genetic information transmitted to daughter cells? • Cell cycle Synthesis (S) phase - information is replicated Mitosis (M) phase - information is sent to daughter cells. How chromosomes are condensed & partitioned. • Eukaryote and prokaryote genomes - size and chromosome number. Reading in Campbell • 7th Edition - 218-229 • 8th Edition - 228 - 237 Mitosis: the condensation and partitioning of chromosomes • Condensation and appearance of chromosomes at prophase/prometaphase. • Migration of chromosomes to center of cell at metaphase. • Separation of chromosomes at anaphase. • Chromosomes at opposite poles at telophase. • Splitting of cell at cytokinesis. 2
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Mitosis sends one set of genetic information (chromosomes) to each daughter cell Chromosomes condense during mitosis Condensed, Replicated Eukaryote Chromosome Chromatids - each chromatid has a double- stranded DNA molecule. Chromosome Centromere Centromere 3
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Interphase •G 1 • S (when DNA replicates ) 2 Mitosis (when chromosomes go to daughter cells) • Prophase • Metaphase • Anaphase • Telophase • Cytokinesis Cell Cycle Phases S Phase - Chromosome replicates Mitosis - Duplicated chromotids separate Fine structure of a replicated metaphase chromosome 4
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Microtubule Structure Prophase = “Before” phase Prometaphase (just before the middle) 5
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Metaphase = “middle” phase Anaphase = “chromosome splitting” phase How chromosomes are pulled 6
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Motor proteins “walk” along the microtubules dragging their cargo Telophase = “end” phase Cytokinesis = “cell splitting” phase 7
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The human eukaryote genome is big! 23 different human chromosomes, 2 of each (1 from Mom, 1 from Dad) in somatic cells Male 8
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Different species can have different number of chromosomes • Humans have 23 different chromosomes (n = 23) • Pea plants have 7 different chromosomes (n = 7). Why have two copies of each chromosome?
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This note was uploaded on 09/28/2009 for the course BIO 1A taught by Professor Schlissel during the Fall '08 term at Berkeley.

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F08pages1-33 - Robert (Bob) Fischer Department of Plant &...

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