F08pages78-93 - Questions on regulation of prokaryote gene...

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Questions on regulation of prokaryote gene expression • 7th Edition (Chapter 18) – Concept Check 18.4 (Questions 1, 2). – Self-Quiz Questions 2-6. • 8th Edition (Chapter 18) – Concept Check 18.2 (Questions 1-3). – Figure 18.3 question. – Self-Quiz questions 1, 3. Please be sure you understand the trp operon even though it was not discussed in class. The Eukaryote Genome Outline of lecture • Repeated DNA. • Gene families. • Eukaryote gene expression. • Chromatin packing during the cell cycle. • DNA methylation, histone modi±cation, affect chromatin structure and gene transcription. Chromatin 78
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Reading Assignment • 7th Edition – Chapter 19, Page 359 - 369 (initiation of translation), 374 (Eukaryotic genomes have. .) - end of the chapter. • 8th Edition – Chapter 16, page 320-323 (end of chapter). – Chapter 18, pages 356-364 up to section on noncoding RNAs. – Chapter 21, page 436 - 442 up to section on Comparing Genome Sequences. The eukaryote genome has many repeated DNA sequences Repeated DNA may play a valuable role in evolution because it is important for gene duplication Repeated DNA • DNA sequences that appear multiple times in the genome. • Rare in prokaryotes, common in eukaryotes. • Simple repeats - 5 to 10 base pair sequences present 10 6 times in telomeres, centromeres. Structural role. • Interspersed repeats - 100 to 10,000 base pair sequences interspersed within (introns) and between genes, each repeated 10 to 10 6 times. • 25-40% of the mammalian genome is interspersed repeated DNA. Adh gene Actin gene Repeat copy 1 Repeat copy 2 Repeat copy 3 79
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One way that transposons create repeated DNA Replication fork Excise and reinsert ahead of replication fork 1 2 3 4 Further movement of replication fork Replication ±nished, one of the DNAs has 2 copies of the transposon 5 transposon Retrotransposons create repeated DNA Gene families • Genes with similar DNA sequences • Encode proteins with similar amino acid sequences that perform related functions. • Related enzymes greatly increase the capability of eukaryotes. • Gene families are thought to evolve from single, ancestral genes. • Mechanism involves “unequal” recombination. • Closely related members are often adjacent, distantly related members are often unlinked. 80
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Birth Fraction total hemoglobin Hemoglobin gene family # " How was the " -hemoglobin gene family generated from a single ancestral " -hemoglobin gene?
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This note was uploaded on 09/28/2009 for the course BIO 1A taught by Professor Schlissel during the Fall '08 term at University of California, Berkeley.

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F08pages78-93 - Questions on regulation of prokaryote gene...

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