5 - Chemical Reactions - Chapter 5: Chemical Reactions 5.1...

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Chapter 5: Chemical Reactions 5.1 Exchange Reactions: Precipitation and Net Ionic Equations Aqueous Solubility of Ionic Compounds o when ionic compound dissolves in water, ions separate (dissociate) and become surrounded by water molecules o strong electrolyte – soluble ionic compounds whose aqueous solution contains ions and conduct electricity; completely converted to ions in an aqueous solution o Solubility Rules Usually Soluble: Group 1A, ammonium Nitrates Chlorides, Bromides, Iodides; except Ag, Hg 2 2+ , Pb 2+ Sulfates; except Ca 2+ , Sr 2+ , Ba 2+ , Pb 2+ Chlorates Perchlorates Acetates Usually Insoluble: Phosphates; except Group 1A, NH 4 + Carbonates; except Group 1A, NH 4 + Hydroxides; except Group 1A, NH 4 + , Sr 2+ , Ba 2+ , Ca 2+ are moderately soluble Oxalates; except Group 1A, NH 4 + Sulfides; except Group 1A, NH 4 + , Group 2A (Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ , and Ba 2+ are slightly soluble o Exchange Reactions if all reactants and products are insoluble, then no reaction occurs if one or both potential products remove ions from solution, reaction will occur formation of insoluble ionic compound formation of molecular compound that remains in solution; i.e., acid-base neutralization produces water formation of gaseous molecular compound that escapes solution; i.e., production of H 2 S Precipitation Reactions o precipitate – insoluble compound that forms as a result of reaction between two aqueous solutions Net Ionic Equations o spectator ions – ions in solution as reactants and products because they are present but are not involved directly; can be left out of equation that represents chemical change o net ionic equation – equation that includes only symbols or formulas of ions in solution or compounds that undergo change o steps to write net ionic equations write overall balanced equation using correct formulas for reactants and products use general guidelines to determine solubility of reactants and products; add phases recognize that all soluble ionic compounds dissociate into their component ions in aqueous solutions use ions to write a complete ionic equation with ions in solution from each soluble compound separately cancel out spectator ions from each side of complete ionic equation to obtain net ionic equation check that sum of charges is same on each side of net ionic equation (conservation of charge)
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5.2 Acids, Bases, and Acid-Base Exchange Reactions
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This note was uploaded on 09/28/2009 for the course CHEM 1A taught by Professor Nitsche during the Fall '08 term at University of California, Berkeley.

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5 - Chemical Reactions - Chapter 5: Chemical Reactions 5.1...

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