12 - Fuels, Organic Chemicals, and Polymers

12 - Fuels, Organic Chemicals, and Polymers - Chapter 12:...

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Chapter 12: Fuels, Organic Chemicals, and Polymers 12.1Petroleum 12.2Natural Gas and Goal 12.3Energy Conversions 12.4Organic Chemicals 12.5Alcohols and Their Oxidation Products 12.6Carboxylic Acids and Esters 12.7Synthetic Organic Polymers polymers – large molecules composed of smaller repeating units, usually in chain-like structure thermoplastics – softens and flows when heated and hardens when cooled; i.e., milk jugs, CDs thermosetting plastics – flows like thermoplastics first but forms a rigid structure that will not melt if heated further; i.e., bowling balls, football helmets synthetic and natural polymers are made by chemically joining monomers into macromolecules controlled by enzymes in nature; made by addition or condensation reactions synthetically addition polymers are made by adding monomer units directly together, no other products are formed condensation polymers are produced when monomer units combine to form polymer with a small molecule (usually water) Addition Polymers o usually have carbon double bonds o Polyethylene is created through additional polymerization which involves three steps 1) Initiation – chemicals such as organic peroxides that are unstable break apart into free radicals with unpaired electrons that react readily with molecules containing double bonded carbons to produce new free radicals 2) Propagation – grow because unpaired electron radical formed in initiation bonds to other molecules and continues until a chain is formed 3) Chain Termination – stops when supply of monomer or free radicals
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12 - Fuels, Organic Chemicals, and Polymers - Chapter 12:...

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