Chapter 1 - Structure and Bonding in Organic Molecules

Chapter 1 - Structure and Bonding in Organic Molecules -...

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Chapter 1: Structure and Bonding in Organic Molecules Chemistry is the study of structure of molecules and the rules that govern their interactions Organic molecules are carbon compounds Organic chemistry is chemistry of carbon and its compounds 1.1 The Scope of Organic Chemistry: An Overview Relate structure of molecule to reactions that it can undergo Functional groups determine the reactivity of organic molecules o Alkanes – carbon and hydrogen atoms in single bonds; no functional groups; bonds can be broken by heat, light, or chemical reactions (chlorination) o Cyclic alkanes are carbon atoms in a ring which leads to new properties and reactivity o Stereoisomerism is exhibited by compounds with same connectivity but differing in positioning of their component atoms in space o Haloalkanes – contains functional group – C – halogen bond Substitution reaction – one halogen replaced by another Elimination reaction – adjacent atoms removed from molecule to generate double bond o Alkynes – triple bonded carbons o Aldehydes – double bonded carbon and oxygen at the end of a molecule o Ketone – double bonded carbon and oxygen in middle of molecule o Amines – nitrogen o Structure of molecule is related to reactions that it can undergo Synthesis is the making of new molecules o Wohler’s synthesis of urea from inorganic lead cyanate showed that carbons can be produced from inorganic materials and not just organic o Synthesis is the making of molecules, usually large complex chemicals from simpler ones Reactions are the vocabulary and mechanisms are the grammar of organic chemistry o Reactants (substrates ) and products make up the reaction but it can be very complex how a reaction proceeds reaction mechanism ; reaction intermediates are species formed on the pathway between reactants and products 1.2 Coulomb Forces: A Simplified View of Bonding Bonds form if interaction is energetically favorable (energy or heat is released) Coulomb’s Law – Opposite charges attract each other, like charges repeal each other Bonds are made by simultaneous coulombic attraction and electron exchange o Coulomb’s law explains why two atoms can be bonded together – one atom’s nucleus attracts the other’s electrons and vice versa o Attractive force causes energy to be released as the neutral atoms are brought together – bond strength o Bond length is the distance between two nuclei; distance where atoms are close enough that no energy is released; if brought any closer, energy increases because the atoms are too close and repulsions become stronger than attraction forces 1.3 Ionic and Covalent Bonds: The Octet Rule The periodic table underlies the octet rule o Organic molecules – C, H, O, N, S, Cl, Br, I; used for synthesis – Li, Mg, B, P
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Chapter 1 - Structure and Bonding in Organic Molecules -...

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