19 - Nuclear Physics - Physics 8B 19 Nuclear Physics rev...

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Physics 8B 19 – Nuclear Physics rev 4.0 19 – Nuclear Physics 1. Three types of natural radioactivity are alpha particles ( α ), beta particles ( β ), and gamma rays ( γ ). a) Q: Which of these radiations has the greatest penetrating power? Explain. b) Q: Which of these radiations is deflected the most by a magnetic field? Explain. 2. a) Q: The term ‘hot’ is used to describe a radioactive substance. Radioactive wastes from a nuclear reactor are also hot thermally. Explain what these statements mean? b) Q: Both radioactivity and nuclear fission produce thermal energy. Where does the energy come from? c) P: In a series of nuclear reactions, 1g of mass is converted into energy. How much energy was produced? d) P: For how many years could this energy keep a 100W light bulb lit, assuming the bulb did not burn out? e) Q: The energy from nuclear fission in a nuclear reactor appears as heat energy. What transmits the heat energy? f) Q: Nuclear fission is the basis for both the atomic bomb and the nuclear reactor. What is the essential difference between the reactor and the bomb?
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Physics 8B 19 – Nuclear Physics rev 4.0 3. a) When radiation is absorbed by matter, such as you, the radiation absorbed dose is measured in terms of the amount of energy absorbed per unit mass. The unit of radiation absorbed dose has for many years been the rad , which is the amount of radiation required for 10 -5 J to be absorbed by 1g. The SI unit introduced in 1975 is the gray (Gy), which is the amount of radiation required for 1J to be absorbed by 1kg. Q: Express 1 rad in terms of the gray. b) The biological effect of radiation in animal or plant tissue is quantified as the dose equivalent and depends not only on the radiation absorbed dose but also on the type of radiation received. Each type of radiation has its own relative biological
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This note was uploaded on 09/28/2009 for the course PHYSICS 8B taught by Professor Shapiro during the Spring '07 term at University of California, Berkeley.

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19 - Nuclear Physics - Physics 8B 19 Nuclear Physics rev...

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