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5Lecture - Jh EXSC205Lxg The Science of Human Performance...

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Jh EXSC205Lxg - The Science of Human Performance Preview Questions/statements 1. An attempt to understand what limits and what facilitates ones optimal performance. Why does fatigues occur after running 1-2 miles? Is it caused by the same factors, as in a marathon (26 miles)? What about 100 meters? - Limits or facilitates - cardiovascular system is the limiting factor. Ability of the heart to pump blood. Dictates how well someone will be able to run 1 or 2 miles. - marathon not just one item, but it appears to be fewer related. Ability to conserve carbohydrates seems to be the main factor. 18 - 22 miles for someone who hasn’t run a marathon before, this is where the muscles lose ability to contract naturally. - 100 meters not cardio or fuel related. Amount of muscle mass and immediate shortage of energy. ATP and ___. Krietin levels in the muscle allows muscles to contract differently. 2. What are the best and most efficient methods of training athletes for their respective sport? - there are very different types of muscle fibers. Fast twitch and slow twitch (endurance) muscle fibers. Selective atrophy, muscle fibers lose their (fast twitch)__ when you do endurance exercises. - 1984 Olympics - 1980 soviet boycott of the Olympics, all black people at sprint finals, comment = Blacks have more fast twitch muscle fiber. But there is no way that everybody has been measured. No one has any evidence to indicate there is any differences in the types of muscle fiber we have 3. What makes the elite or superior athlete? Can he/she be identified physiologically? Can average individuals attain elite status by training? - training vs. genetics. Muscle fibers don’t replicate, they just get bigger. Genetics do preclude some people from being that good. On a real scale, genetics far outweigh training, especially for some sports. 4. Effects of environment on performance: heat, cold, altitude, air pollution - THURSDAY, CHAPTER 5 METABOLISM THURSDAY, JANUARY 15, 2009 Metabolism: chemical conversion of food to useable energy Universal source of energy for muscles: ATP (a single enzyme system) ATP - (adenosine troposphere) CP - (creatine phosphate)
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Atp use ATP ADP + P + Energy To make more ATP: ADP + P + ENGERGY ATP (rephosphorylation, adding energy) ADP = Adenosine diphosphate Energy is actually coming from the foods you break down in tbe metabolic process and creates ATP Anything that requires energy in the body requires atp Creatin phosphate also rephosohorylates that. They don’t require very much (single enzyme systems) immediate sources of energy Fuel Reserves Calories (in the muscle) ATP+CP = 10-15 About 100 calories a mile Small amount of energy released People take aid for creatin Glycogen (animal starch) most of it in skeletal muscle = about 1000 to 1500 calories Unless you fasted for days, this level will remain relatively stable If you use carbohydrates, you use fats also Occasionally some people think they need nutritional food for a boost, but glycogen is sufficient for most of the exercise people do. More is only needed
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