4_08_09_ Glycolysis_Pyruvate

4_08_09_ Glycolysis_Pyruvate - the negative charge that is...

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Biochemistry Sixth Edition Chapter 16: Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis Copyright © 2007 by W. H. Freeman and Company   Berg • Tymoczko • Stryer
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Gluconeogenesis Making glucose from non-sugars. Glucose is needed by the brain ~120 grams/day. Making glucose is NOT the reverse of glycolysis. Biochemical ‘end arounds’ are necessary for the thermodynamically committed steps e.g pyruvate kinase.
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Pyruvate carboxylase
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Phosphoenol pyruvate carboxykinase Takes place inside the mitochondria
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Fermentation is the conversion of sugar into energy in the absence of oxygen
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Unformatted text preview: the negative charge that is transferred to the ring as part of the decarboxylation. Oxidation step. The lipoamide is linked to a lysine side chain on enzyme E2. Dihydrolipoly transacetylase E2. The energy rich thio ester bond is preserved as the acetyl group is transferred to CoA Lipoamide needs to be re-oxidzed and this is accomplished by FAD. From Dihydrolipoly dehydrogenase Lipoamide is regenerated by E3, dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase Core consists of E2 which consists of an octamer of trimers. The N-terminal domain contains the Lipoamide, followed by a small domain that binds to E3. E1 is tetramer of 2 alpha and 2 beta subunits while E3 is a heterodimer. 24 copies of E1 and 12 copies of E3 surround the E2 core. Hydroxyethyl TPP Insertion of the lipoamide E1 transfers 2 carbon group to lipoamide Lipoamide is oxidized...
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4_08_09_ Glycolysis_Pyruvate - the negative charge that is...

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