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4_15_09 TCA Cycle_shunts_links

4_15_09 TCA Cycle_shunts_links - Berg Tymoczko Stryer...

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Biochemistry Sixth Edition Chapter 17: The Citric Acid Cycle Copyright  ©  2007 by W. H. Freeman and Company   Berg • Tymoczko • Stryer
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These reactions are readily reversible BUT…. There is a powerful pyrophosphatase that drives the reaction forward Acyl CoA Synthetase
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Fatty acid breakdown when there is not enough oxaloacetate: Ketone bodies
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Synthesized by Acetyl CoA Carboxylase Creates a CO 2 -biotin-Enzyme intermediate
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When citrate concentrations are high in the mitochondrion Citrate is transported to the cytoplasm and used to make fatty acids by ATP-citrate lyase Citrate +ATP + CoA + H 2 O acetyl CoA +ADP + P i + oxaloacetate
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Phosphorylation of Acetyl CoA carboxylase partially inactivates the enzyme High AMP phosphoryates and High ATP inhibits phosphorylation i.e. Low energy shuts off the carboyxlase and high energry turns it on Acetyl CoA Carboxylase can be activated by Citrate
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Biochemistry Sixth Edition Chapter 23: Protein Turnover and Amino Acid Catabolism Copyright  ©  2007 by W. H. Freeman and Company   Berg • Tymoczko • Stryer
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α keto acid
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The internal aldimine is displaced For an external aldimine
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