15. Zhou Enlai
prominent CCP leader, was Premier of the PRC from 1949 until 1976
gained prominence by leading a anti-government raid during the May Fourth
Movement of 1919
supported Mao against the 28 Bolsheviks faction in January 1935, during the
he worked to promote a united anti-Japanese front, and negotiated the Second
CPC-KMT United Front
became Premier in 1949, when the PRC was established
as Premier, he focused primarily on the Chinese economy, which was lagging,
and sought to increase agricultural output by evenly distributing land
he maintained his position throughout the Great Leap Forward, but was hurt
during the Cultural Revolution, which lasted from 1966 to 1976
in 1975, one year before his death, he promoted the “Four Modernizations” (the
four fields being: agriculture, industry, science and technology, and the military)
as an alternative to the Cultural Revolution.
These were aimed at undoing a lot of
the damage caused during the Cultural Revolution, and were later adopted by
Deng Xiaoping, who inherited many of Zhou’s responsibilities after his death.
helped resurrect contacts with the West during the 1970s
his legacy: though he was a communist, Zhou was considerably more moderate
than Mao (much like Deng Xiaoping), but lacked the power necessary to enact
17. Gang of Four
The Gang of Four was a group of Communist Party leaders in the People's
Republic of China who were arrested and removed from their positions in 1976,
following the death of Mao Zedong, and were blamed for the events of the
The group included Mao's widow Jiang Qing and three of her close associates,
Zhang Chunqiao, Yao Wenyuan, and Wang Hongwen.
Two other men who were already dead in 1976, Kang Sheng and Xie Fuzhi, were
named as having been part of the "gang."
The removal of this group from power marked the end of the Cultural Revolution.
Mao placed Jiang, who before 1966 had not taken a public political role, in charge
of the country’s cultural apparatus.
Zhang, Yao and Wang were party leaders in Shanghai who had played leading
roles in securing that city for Mao during the Cultural Revolution.
In 1981, the four deposed leaders were subjected to a show trial and convicted of
18. Kuomintang (Chinese Nationalist Party, also called the KMT)
Formed after the Xinhai Revolution on August 25, 1912 by Sung Chiao-jen and
Dr. Sun Yat-sen, the KMT was formed from a collection of several revolutionary
Began receiving aid from the Soviet Union in the Early 1920s