NATS 102 ch 10

NATS 102 ch 10 - Chapter 10 Our Star 10.1 A Closer Look at...

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Chapter 10 Our Star
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10.1 A Closer Look at the Sun Our Goals for Learning Why does the Sun shine? What is the Sun’s structure?
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Why does the Sun shine?
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Is it on FIRE? 
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Is it on FIRE?  Luminosity ~  10,000 years Chemical Energy Content
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Is it on FIRE?  … NO!  Luminosity ~  10,000 years Chemical Energy Content
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Is it CONTRACTING?
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Luminosity Gravitational Potential Energy Is it CONTRACTING? ~  25 million years
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Luminosity Gravitational Potential Energy Is it CONTRACTING?  … NO! ~  25 million years
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Luminosity ~  25 million years Gravitational Potential Energy Is it CONTRACTING?  … NO! E = mc2 - Einstein, 1905
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Is it powered by NUCLEAR ENERGY? Luminosity ~  10 billion years Nuclear Potential Energy (core)
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Is it powered by NUCLEAR ENERGY? … YES! Luminosity ~  10 billion years Nuclear Potential Energy (core)
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Gravitational  equilibrium: The outward  push of pressure  balances the  inward pull of  gravity
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Weight of upper layers  compresses lower layers
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Gravitational  equilibrium: Energy provided  by fusion  maintains the  pressure
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Gravitational  contraction: Provided energy  that heated core  as Sun was  forming Contraction  stopped when  fusion began
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What is the Sun’s structure?
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Radius:    6.9 x 10 8  m   (109 times Earth) Mass:    2 x 10 30  kg   (300,000 Earths) Luminosity:    3.8 x 10 26  watts
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Solar wind: A flow of  charged  particles from  the surface of  the Sun
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Corona: Outermost  layer of solar  atmosphere  ~1 million K
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Chromosphere: Middle layer of  solar atmosphere ~ 10 4  - 10 5  K
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Photosphere: Visible surface of  Sun ~ 6,000 K
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Convection Zone: Energy transported  upward by rising  hot gas
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Radiation Zone: Energy transported  upward by photons
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Core: Energy generated  by nuclear fusion ~ 15 million K
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The Sun shines because
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NATS 102 ch 10 - Chapter 10 Our Star 10.1 A Closer Look at...

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