Chapter 26

Chapter 26 - Chapter 26 Cosmology the science concerned...

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Chapter 26 Cosmology – the science concerned with the structure and evolution of the universe as a whole Newton concluded we must be living amid a static, infinite expanse of stars because a finite number of stars would in time cause them all to fall together due to gravitational forces Olbers’s paradox – the dilemma associated with the fact that the night sky is dark Newton pictured space as a gigantic flat sheet of inflexible rectangular graph paper The matter that occupies the universe influences the overall shape of space throughout the universe based on einstein’s theory of relativity Cosmological constant – the pressure that tends to make the universe expand (not no firm basis in physics) Hubble’s discovery that we live in an expanding universe provided the resolution of Olbers’s paradox Hubble law – the greater the distance to a galaxy, the greater is the galaxy’s redshift. Basically, remote galaxies are moving away from us with speeds proportional to their distances V=Ho*d (Ho = hubble constant. V= velocity. D= distance from earth) The galaxies moving away from us make it seem as though we are in the center of the universe, but that’s not true. No matter where you are in the universe, things move away from you at this same rate He redshifts of distant galaxies are not Doppler shifts; they are caused by the expansion of space itself (Doppler is motion thru space while this is the expansion of space) Cosmological redshift – a redshift caused by the expansion of the universe Z = (K-Ko)/Ko (z = redshift. K = wavelength observed. Ko = unshifted wavelength of a
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Chapter 26 - Chapter 26 Cosmology the science concerned...

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