Lecture 4_RiskAssessmnt_Sept 8 - Assessing Human Risk Why...

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Assessing Human Risk ± Why do we need risk assessment? ± What is risk assessment? È How does it differ from other hazard management o does t d e o ot e a a d a age e t strategies? È The major components of a risk assessment ± Risk assessment example ± Risk assessment and risk management
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Why do we need risk assessments? Number of new chemicals >> chemical impact research 24 million chemicals in the Chemical Abstracts Services (CAS) Registry (4,000 added per day) 70,000 chemicals formulations in commerce (1000 added/year) 300 high production volume (HPV) chemicals [more than 1 million AND 3,300 high production volume (HPV) chemicals [more than 1 million pounds/y produced] 900 Substances reviewed by the International Agency for Research on Cancer 500 Chemicals in the EPA Integrated Risk Information System database 95 known human carcinogens 33 000 chemicals in the Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical 133,000 chemicals in the Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) database (mainly with only LD50 studies)
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Dioxin-Like Chemicals in Salmon All Salmon have detectable residues f cancer- ausing pollutants QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. of cancer causing pollutants Farm-raised salmon have higher vels than wild salmon captured levels than wild salmon captured in the ocean ontaminants in farmed salmon also may affect Contaminants in farmed salmon also may affect neurodevelopment in children o wild or farm ise Salmon pose Do wild or farm-raise Salmon pose unacceptable health risks? QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Hites el al. Science , 202:226-229, 2004
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What is Risk Assessment? The goal of a risk assessment is to characterize the likelihood of harm (or loss) in a format that assists decision makers who must act to tolerate, itigate or eliminate the potential harm mitigate, or eliminate the potential harm "Most predictions are uncertain, especially those about the future"
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Risk Assessment for Toxic Chemicals air lants Source / Inventory Emission water soil layers plants Transport and transformation Change Exposure Events sediment Uptake Biokinetics Toxicology isk emissions Response and dose Dose Risk Characterization R
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Safe Exposures without Risk Assessment The dose makes the poison? Paracelsus (~1440) etting a “safe” dose based on Setting a safe dose based on “tolerance” Tolerance of short or long-term dose? isibility of chronic effects Visibility of chronic effects The role of hazard avoidance and precaution
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Dimensions of Harm (Toxic Chemicals) Disaster All eath ome Many Most Cancer Cluster Minor injury Performance deficit Casualty Death Most ens Few Some Minutes Hours Months Years Irritation None Sens.
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Effects of Ionizing Radiation Exposure GENETIC Effects SOMATIC Manifested in the
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This note was uploaded on 09/29/2009 for the course NUTRI SCI 10 taught by Professor Amy during the Spring '08 term at University of California, Berkeley.

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Lecture 4_RiskAssessmnt_Sept 8 - Assessing Human Risk Why...

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