Lecture 8 _Water and wastewater_Sept 22

Lecture 8 _Water and wastewater_Sept 22 - WATER and...

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Unformatted text preview: WATER and WASTEWATER - Moore 1 WATER and WASTEWATER Introduction Water should be cheap, accessible, plentiful, and relatively safe to drink. But in some places it is not and water can be an important source of disease 2 Hydrological Cycle The hydrological cycle is a process involving the sun, the atmosphere, the earth and water. This cycle consists of evaporation, condensation, transportation, transpiration (evaporation from leaves, stems, flowers, and roots), precipitation, and runoff. 3 The Hydrological Cycle 4 WATER and WASTEWATER - Moore Global Water Reserves Water and Health The human body is 67% water. Access to clean water is critical to human well-being and survival. Over 1.7 billion people in the world lack access to clean drinking water. Drinking and bathing in the water of the Ganges River kills 2 M children per year in India. 6 Water Shortage and Scarcity A 1995 World Bank report indicated that 40% of the worlds population face water shortages. Globally, the demand for water has been increasing at about 2.3% annually, with a doubling of demand occurring every 21 years. One out of every five people lacks a clean water supply. At some point, worldwide water use will be limited by physical, economic and environmental limitations. 7 Access to Safe Drinking Water and Sanitation-2002 Country Water Sanitation Urban Rural Urban Rural Kenya 89 46 56 43 Nigeria 72 49 48 30 South Africa 98 73 86 44 Cuba 95 78 99 95 Mexico 97 72 90 39 Ecuador 92 77 80 59 Venezuela 85 70 71 48 Afghanistan 19 11 16 5 China 92 68 69 29 Philippines 90 77 81 61 Russian Fed. 99 88 93 70 Gleick, The Worlds Water, 2006-07 Fresh Water and Sanitation 9 Source 'Global Water Supply and Sanitation Assessment 2000 Report', section 2.2, WHO 2000 Read more: http://www.lenntech.com/library/diseases/diseases/wa Global Water Use Water Use Agriculture Agriculture consumes the largest portion of the freshwater supply, with over two-thirds of the worlds water demand used for irrigation. Sixty percent of this water is lost to evaporation or runoff. Water subsidies to agriculture lead to waste and ineffienct use. 11 Water Use Industry The industrial sector also uses large quantities of water for numerous purposes, including manufacturing, cooling and condensation by power plants, and waste disposal....
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Lecture 8 _Water and wastewater_Sept 22 - WATER and...

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