IB131_9.2.09_Integumentary System

IB131_9.2.09_Integumentary System - Introduction to the...

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Introduction to the Integumentary System ± The integument is the largest system of the body ± 16% of body weight ± 1.5 to 2 m 2 in area ± The integument is made up of two parts ± Cutaneous membrane (skin) ± Accessory structures
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Functions of the Integumentary System ± Protects underlying tissues and organs ± Resistance ± packed with keratin and linked by desmosomes ± acid mantle (pH 4-6) ± Excretes salts, water, and organic wastes (glands) ± Maintains body temperature (insulation and evaporation) ± Thermoreceptors through sweating ± Synthesizes vitamin D 3 ± Stores lipids ± Detects touch, pressure, pain, and temperature ± Barrier to ultraviolet light ± Nonverbal communication
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The Integument ± Epidermis ± keratinized stratified squamous epithelium ± Dermis ± connective tissue layer ± Hypodermis ± Thickness variable, normally 1-2 mm ± dermis may thicken, up to 6 mm ± stratum corneum layer increased ± calluses on hands and feet
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Introduction to the Integumentary System ± The cutaneous membrane has two components ± Outer epidermis ± Superficial epithelium (epithelial tissues) ± Inner dermis ± Connective tissues ± Subcutaneous layer (superficial fascia or hypodermis ) ± Loose connective tissue ± Below the dermis ± Location of hypodermic injections
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Introduction to the Integumentary System ± Accessory Structures ± Originate in the dermis ± Extend through the epidermis to skin surface ± Hair ± Nails ± Multicellular exocrine glands ± Connections ± Cardiovascular system ± Blood vessels in the dermis ± Nervous system ± Sensory receptors for pain, touch, and temperature
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Structure of the Skin ± Avascular stratified squamous epithelium ± Nutrients & oxygen diffuse from capillaries in the dermis
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Organization of the Epidermis
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Epidermis ± Thin Skin ± Covers most of the body ± Has four layers of keratinocytes ± Thick Skin ± Covers the palms of the hands and soles of the feet ± Has five layers of keratinocytes
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Organization of the Epidermis
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Structures of the Epidermis ± The five strata of keratinocytes in thick skin ± From basal lamina to free surface ± Stratum germinativum ± Stratum spinosum ± Stratum granulosum ± Stratum lucidum ± Stratum corneum
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Epidermis 1. Stratum Germinativum ± The “germinative layer” ± Has many germinative (stem) cells or basal cells ± Is attached to basal lamina by hemidesmosomes ± Forms a strong bond between epidermis and dermis ± Forms epidermal ridges ( e.g., fingerprints) ± Dermal papillae (tiny mounds) ± Increase the area of basal lamina ± Strengthen attachment between epidermis and dermis
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Epidermis ± Specialized Cells of Stratum Germinativum ± Merkel cells ± Found in hairless skin ± Respond to touch (trigger nervous system) ± Melanocytes ± Contain the pigment melanin ± Scattered throughout stratum germinativum
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Stratum Basale ± Single layer cells on basement membrane ± Cell types in this layer ± keratinocytes ± undergo mitosis to replace epidermis
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This note was uploaded on 09/29/2009 for the course INTEG BIO 131 taught by Professor Lewis during the Fall '09 term at Berkeley.

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IB131_9.2.09_Integumentary System - Introduction to the...

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