IB131_9.4.09_Bones.Axial.Skel_pdf - Overview of the...

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Overview of the Skeleton ± Regions of the skeleton xial skeleton centra lax is ± axial skeleton = central axis ± skull, vertebral column, ribs, sternum & sacrum ± appendicular skeleton = limbs & girdles ± Number of bones ± 206 in typical adult skeleton ± varies with development of sesamoid bones (patella) tart at 270 at birth w/ fusion ± start at 270 at birth,
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Functions of the Skeletal System ± Support ± Movement: leverage (force of motion) ± Protection ± ineral storage (Ca 2+ O 3- Mineral storage (Ca ,PO 4 ) ± Blood cell production (red marrow) ± Energy storage: lipids (yellow marrow)
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Classification of Bones Bone Shapes ± Long bones ng and thin ± long and thin ± found in arms, legs, hands, feet, fingers, toes ± Flat bones ± thin with parallel surfaces ± found in the skull, sternum, ribs, scapulae ± Sutural bones ± small, irregular bones ± found between the flat bones of the skull ± Irregular bones ± have complex shapes ± Examples: spinal vertebrae, pelvic bones ± hort bones Short bones ± small & thick ± Examples: ankle and wrist bones ± Sesamoid bones mall & flat ± Small & flat ± Develop inside tendons near joints of knees, hands, & feet
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Bone Markings ± Depressions/ grooves ± Along bone surface ± rojections Projections ± Where tendons & ligaments attach t articulations with other bones ± At articulations with other bones ± Tunnels/ openings ± Passage of blood vessels & nerves
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Bone Surface Features
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Bone Surface Features
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Gross Anatomy of Bones Structure of a Long Bone ± Diaphysis ± The shaft ± A heavy wall of compact bone, or dense bone ± A central space called medullary (marrow) cavity ± Epiphysis ± Wide part at each end ± Articulation with other bones ± Mostly spongy (cancellous) bone ± Covered with compact bone (cortex) ± Metaphysis ± Where diaphysis & epiphysis meet
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Gross Anatomy of Bones Structure of a Flat Bone ± The parietal bone of the skull ± esembles a sandwich of spongy bone Resembles a sandwich of spongy bone ± Between two layers of compact bone ithin the cranium the layer of spongy ± Within the cranium, the layer of spongy bone between the compact bone is alled the iploë called the diploë
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Bone (Osseous) Tissue ± Dense, supportive connective tissue ± Contains specialized cells roduces matrix (2/3) ± Produces matrix (2/3) ± Deposits of calcium salts ± Surrounds collagen fibers (1/3)
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Cells of Bone (Osseous) Tissue Cells make up only 2% of bone mass
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Homeostasis of Osseous Tissue ± Bone building -> via osteoblasts ± bone recycling -> via osteoclasts ± Processes must balance breakdown > building bones become weak ± If breakdown > building, bones become weak ± Exercise, particularly weight-bearing exercise, causes osteoblasts to build bone
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Compact and Spongy Bone The Structure of Compact Bone steon the basic unit ± Osteon is the basic unit ± Osteocytes are arranged in concentric lamellae around a entral canal ontaining blood central canal containing blood vessels ± Perforating Canals: erpendicular to the central – perpendicular to the central canal
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This note was uploaded on 09/29/2009 for the course INTEG BIO 131 taught by Professor Lewis during the Fall '09 term at University of California, Berkeley.

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IB131_9.4.09_Bones.Axial.Skel_pdf - Overview of the...

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