Lecture 19 - Lecture 19Equilibrium and Introduction to...

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Lecture 19—Equilibrium and Introduction to Acids G = H - TS Free energy state function. ΔG = ΔH - TΔS for change from one state to another ΔG can refer to any process that we define; any amount of any substance, pure or mixed, going from one state to another. If both states are present at equilibrium, ΔG = 0 ΔG 0 refers to the change in free energy of a standard amount of a single substance (usually a mole of a reactant in a reaction mixed only with the other reactants) under standard conditions of pressure and temperature. ΔG 0 is almost never zero! Chemical reactions are at equilibrium when the change in the bonding from any further reaction is balanced by the change in the entropy of mixing. Over the long term, the state of the system appears fixed. On very short time scales, the reaction is actually proceeding in both directions, but at equal rates (meaning of the “double arrow”). Reversible reactions will proceed spontaneously in order to reach concentrations that give
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This note was uploaded on 09/29/2009 for the course ME 530.230 taught by Professor Katz during the Spring '09 term at Johns Hopkins.

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Lecture 19 - Lecture 19Equilibrium and Introduction to...

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